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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Concluding Remarks

General Comments

The reasons that the results of studies carried out using the graphic-analytical method are ignored in academic science lie in its current internal state. Ukrainian researcher of Baudriard's work claims that this postmodernist philosopher proved that the academic science of our time is a complete simulation (MALTSEV OLEG. 2020: 40) Maltsev believes that this happened because, compared with the Middle Ages, the understanding of science has changed in the scientific world. In the XIV-XV centuries, it was believed that "there is a certain force that builds this world", while in the world "there is a certain substantial component that stands above science" (ibid, 41). Such an understanding of the essence of science can be viewed as a metaphor that allows us to explore its historical development from different points of view. From the point of view of a mathematician, the current state of science is described as follows:

In most previous times, the personnel of science had been seeded by the austerity of the work and the scantiness of the pickings. There is a passage in Tennyson’s “Northern Farmer: New Style” which says: “Doant thou marry for munny, but god wheer munnyis!” Thus, an ambitious man with slightly anti-social tendencies or, to put it more politely, indifferent to spending other people's money, would formerly have avoided a scientific career as if it were the plague itself. From the time of the war on, these adventurers, who would have started out as stock promoters or lights of the insurance business, have been invading science (WIENER N. 1956: 271-272).

This was the case in America, but apparently, the same process was taking place all over the world, because in Russia, where in the 19th century the task of scientists was "to sow good, reasonable, eternal", in the next century, everything changed in the same direction. This change was noticed by an archaeologist:

In the 20th century, science turned out to be a profitable, prestigious business, and crowds poured into it, thinking not at all about pure knowledge and not at all about serving the people, but first of all about their belly and their pocket.(FORMOZOV A.A. 2005: 213).

Further, Formozov notes that in the new circumstances, it is not armchair scientists who are successful, but businessmen, and entrepreneurs. As elsewhere in our time, in science, "media-gifted" people control all processes. Usually, they behave very self-confidently, which largely makes an impression on the environment, but self-confidence is a constant companion of narrow-mindedness, as Bertrand Russell noted on the example of backward peoples. Such behavior brings success in popular culture, but in science, it only hurts, which can follow from the words of an attentive observer of social processes:

… a few "media" scientists occupy the entire stage, and their less ostentatious fellows quietly conduct research or mass, and no one will ever hear about them – neither during life nor after death (KOMÁREK STANISLAV. 2020: 138).

Another world famous scientist characterizes the course of the creative process in science with the following words:

This, then, is the span of time over which the conservative tendencies built in the structure of scientific careers act to retard the progress of science. Science is hard, and we scientists prefer to have as good an understanding of what we’re doing as possible; thus unless forced to do otherwise, we prefer to work with techniques and ideas we already understand well. Another factor is that the careers of young scientists are often controlled by senior people nearing retirement, who are in many cases no longer active and therefore unfamiliar with new techniques. Career-savvy graduate students, no matter how imaginative, hesitate to work on something not understood by the powerful men and women of their field (SMOLIN LEE, 2002: 5).

The quoted author speaks about the situation in the natural sciences, but conservatism is particularly strong in the humanities, where few dare to doubt the established regulations and to revise them, without being sure of the veracity of the results obtained by not the traditional method. Finding a new approach to the solution of complex problems in the humanities is not easy because of the limited opportunities to use empirical methods:

… there is a very significant difference between the natural and historical experience: the first can be reproduced at our request, its reliability is proved by the very fact that the necessary baseline can be recreated many times; historical experience is unique. Deriving from its forecasts, we must remember that they will be treated to the changed conditions… (KOMPANEYETS A.S. 1968: 56)

Impossibility of reproducing historical events seems to be an insurmountable barrier to the truth, but the historical experience can be simulated mathematically in certain cases. It is only necessary to find the appropriate mathematical tools. But the main reason lies in the total crisis of morality in a world that did not pass science too. Academic social science has become a kind of workshop, not interested in searching for truth but employed in scientific careers and relative material prosperity. These two objectives can be achieved in the natural sciences through technical solutions, which implementation brings in a quite short time tangible real results, which can be utilized by discoverer in his own favor. However, a positive result of newly found historical truth can affect after a very long time. A fruitful idea can be distorted, ridiculed, trampled, and its author himself exposed to public ridicule by verbal rhetoric and sophistry, the demagoguery of disinterested, dull-witted reactionaries and careerists. You need only recall the fate of genetics, cybernetics, and historical linguistics in the Soviet Union. In this situation, I had no choice but to position myself as an independent researcher and to signify my research as Alternative Linguistics.

The studies of ethnogenetic processes in Eastern Europe once again lead us to a close relationship of physical and social geography. This was the conclusion of many scientists applying new research methods in geography, ethnology, and linguistics. There can be no doubt that a sufficiently accurate recovery of prehistoric events on our planet is possible. However, the fulfillment of this task requires uniting research efforts in different specialties at a secure base. Unfortunately, creating such a database was still unsuccessful. I only hope that my work may become one of the blocks in its construction.

Natural sciences had their success due to using mathematical methods by the favorable possibility of the repeating of the baseline in accordance with the wishes of the researcher. Whereas mathematics is making headway in historical linguistics with great difficulty, and a cause of it is not only non-repeatable historical experience and the lack of appropriate mathematical methods. By itself, the conceptual apparatus of social science cannot allow using mathematics in full. For example, such a fundamental concept as the "variable", available in mathematics is absent in linguistics. Although G. Hegel stated that the foundations of human knowledge are modified from generation to generation, this idea is not developed properly for practical application. Of course, it's hard to talk about "variable values" in social science, but the introduction of the concept of "variable phenomenon" is essentially necessary. This helps to avoid semantic difficulties arising at using words and concepts established in previous notions, but which turned out not sufficiently precise or even wrong actually. For example, linguistic concepts of "mother tongue", "dialect", "patois", "speech", "language" can characterize human speech activity at specific time intervals or space, but no words exist to describe the general concept, which would unite all them into a phenomenon in its historical, but not divergent development. If necessary, the word "language" is used, the exact meaning of which should be clear from the context, but it is not always feasible or is connected with an unnecessary complication of the narration. On the other hand, diverse dialects can be parts of the language at a certain stage of its development of divergence, but in any case, the differences (or borders) between dialect and language or between diverse dialects are not sufficiently clear. This means that language in the most general sense is a variable phenomenon in time and space dimensions. Changes of language phenomena in these dimensions are in progress irregular, and that allows us to operate by the concepts of "language", "dialect", "patois" in a narrow sense every once and assume the approximate time of their occurrence. Thus, the development of human speech is a complicated nonlinear process that requires for its research special methods, which are still in a formative stage.

At one time the famous mathematician and philosopher John (Johann) von Neumann (1903 – 1957) developed a special heuristic approach for solving nonlinear problems. The studies by means of the graphic-analytical method fit well into the scheme of this approach as one of its stages. The first phase of accumulation of information and facts about the studied linguistic phenomena can be seen looking back at the history of general linguistics and language theories. The bulk of the material needed for research using the graphic-analytical method is concentrated as vocabulary in a great number of dictionaries, both etymological or bilingual. This cumulative nature of the development of linguistics is consistent with the development of any science. Then, in full accordance with the scheme of J. Neumann, an intuitive hypothesis was advanced on the numerical experiments about inverse proportionality between the number of common features in two languages and a spatial distance that separated the forefathers of speakers of these languages at the time of their formation. This hypothesis, being underlain the graph-analytical method, was tested on the largest possible mass of lexical material for different language families by numerical methods and the reality of this dependence has been confirmed repeatedly. In accordance with the results of calculations, initial data were specified by removing random and asynchronous elements, which, in turn, allowed us to obtain a model of the kinship of languages in a more correct form (graphical model). Correlating such models to specific areas on the map provides an additional opportunity to verify the results obtained by methods of historical linguistics.

The study is not to be considered in any way as in full completed. Obtained results can be considered as a kind of launching pad to expand into new ways of studying the processes of ethnogenesis by linguistic and extralinguistic means. For example, a methodological concept of a fractal comes in the practice of scientific research in recent decades. This concept characterizes the new approach to sets of known facts as a recursive hierarchical system amenable to mathematical description. Using this concept, it is possible to connect the fractal features of the landscape with the fractal structure of languages, and perhaps even with some of the features of ethno-psychology. As for inadvertence to Alternative linguistics manifested by the official science, this fact provides a good opportunity to look in a certain aspect of some epistemological and ontological problems of philosophy.

On the Ways of Human Knowledge

The rejection methods and results of the research by official science, obviously, is also a consequence of specific patterns in the ways of knowing the truth. Pope John Paul II emphasized in his encyclical "Fides et ratio" («Faith and reason") the deep connection between faith and rational knowledge. While receiving knowledge, everyone trusts the teacher, that is, knowledge obtained by others, but most convincing knowledge is the knowledge acquired through own efforts, own experiences. The confidence of teachers is the higher the larger is his credibility among students. Our example clearly shows how the knowledge, obtained by the seemingly convincing mathematical and logical apparatus, is unconvincing if the author has no followers and authority in science. Suspicion and distrust, manifested in this case are psychological categories that have been scarcely studied in epistemology. It seems that M. Bishop and J. Trout came most closely to this problem in his book ”Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment” (MICHAEL A. BISHOP and J.D. TROUT, Oxford University Press, 2005: 205). Clearly, the psychological aspect of the theory of knowledge is important and deserves more careful consideration.

On the other hand, the constant human aspiration for truth, about which Pope wrote in the encyclical, cannot be absolute. Truth is interesting not always and not for everyone and perhaps it is not even useful for a particular circle of people in many cases. And not all are looking for it by their own efforts, the majority trusts in teachers. However, the overestimation of the importance of pluralism of ideas leads to the notion about the equal value of different opinions and, ultimately, to the loss of teacher's authority, and with it also trust. Obviously, this situation is associated with a universal ethical crisis in our world.

On the Formation of Human Language.

Historical Linguistics convinces us that the language was not given to man in ready-made from above but went a long path of gradual improvement. At their birth languages did not have the grammatical forms in their modern sense, and consisted of audio signals. The logical connection between them was refined by intonation, gestures, and other possible ways, for example, order, repetition, sound power. Sound signals were completely ideophones, which senses were closely connected with the sounding. At the same time, certain sounds had initially some emotional coloration which helped to understand their meaning. For example, the sounds m and n are till now understood by people of different linguistic identity as a rejection, especially if these sounds are accompanied by head reeling. The same sound m can be understood as "I", "my", "me", if accompanied by a nod of the head. Spots demanded a one-time gesture that could indicate another person or object. Then the sounds of dh, th, d, t at the same time with a single movement of the head-up could mean "you", "your," "he," "there". Gradually, it was clear for men that the relation between sounds and their meaning may be specified by word creation combining a limited set of sounds that are learned by man. Simple sounds are vowels that kept almost unchanged to this day. It was otherwise with consonants. The idea of the first human consonants can provide observation on the development of child speech. The first consonants learned by a child, are formed naturally (primarily lip sounds).

Later, child imitated the sounds of adults. But imitation is not unique to children. French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843 – 1904) even believed that the whole social life is largely based on human instinct of imitating each to other and everyday life confirms this statement. Imitation is typical for animals, so we might think that it is one of the instincts in the animal world. During formation of language, imitation provides communicative properties of language, i.e. understanding between people through involuntary standardization of sound signals. Closely associated with nature, primitive man imitated not only other men but beasts too. Accordingly, some of his tones must had to be just as inarticulate as the sounds uttered by animals. This assumption seems the more logical going out that man is descended from an unknown for us primate species. However, without coming into this complex issue, the same can be argued on the basis that many ancient languages had compound sounds such as aspirated bh, dh, gh, th, kh, gwh, qwh, africate dz, ts, ps, ks, labial gw, qw, tw, pw, which were simplified subsequently in many languages. In addition to these sounds, some facts have been revealed in the course of the studies give reason to believe the existence in many ancient languages sibilant affricate rz, rs, , , which eventually disappeared entirely excepting the Czech language which has a sibilant vibrant ř.

In contrary to phonetics, the morphology of languages was becoming ever more complicated. Primarily all words had no signs of particular parts of speech and only later the diversity of modern morphology developed from the first categories of name and verb. Consideration of the general fund of the Nostratic vocabulary suggests that the verb category arose as the first and subsequently certain verbs developed in substantives. Comprehension of the nature of verbal names gave impetus to the formation of the original nouns. It is noteworthy that the largest group among the verbs was consisted of the words of technological semantics ("to beat", "to cut", "to split", "to bend").

The comparison of the numerals of the Nostratic languages gives grounds to suppose that numerals could be developed from pronouns (see the Primary Formation of Numerals in the Nostratic Languages). This question may be interesting not only for linguists but also for psychologists. In general, it should be noted that the recovery process of the emergence of human language requires the application of the efforts of scientists of different specializations – linguists, anthropologists, archaeologists, sociologists, and others.

On the Ways and Paces of Language Development

The research shows that the languages in ancient times developed mainly on a divergent way. In this respect they are in full compliance with the divergent, expanding development of nature in general. The known facts of mutual influence of the ancient languages (lexical borrowing, the role of the substrate, etc.) can be hardly regarded as convergent development because the facts of arising one language on the basis of some other languages are unknown, but such theoretical possibility is considered by many scholars. For example, it is often been suggested that the union of the Eastern Slavs into one state – Kyiv Rus' resulted in a common Old-Russian language due to constant contacts and mutual influences of the population of this state. However, in view of the isolation of many settlements and the lack of routes and means of communication, contacts between distant populations were very rare. If even such contacts took place, men were thinking not about the removal of language differences but used these contacts for more mundane practical purposes. Even today, residents of neighboring villages use sometimes different words for the same subject and do not refuse them purely due to the habit, despite the fact that they are well aware of this difference. Borrowing and interference are most often seen in cases of adoption of new phenomena and objects. But the identity of language is defined just on the basis of its most archaic elements, which are usually most widely used. We can speak more specifically about the convergent development of languages in cases when the native languages of ethnic groups on different stages of development. Then the influence of one language on another becomes so great that it is possible to talk about the genetic relationship of these languages. Just such influence can be observed in the case of the Turkic and Mongolian languages. But by bringing to research the most archaic elements of these languages should convince us that these languages have different origins.

Intensification of convergent development of languages started with the development of communication and with the advent of written language, which begun to play a normative role and thus it slows or stops the divergent development of language and leads in some cases to a convergence of dialects of the same language. Thus, divergent evolution cannot continue indefinitely long, but convergent development also has its limits – it does not lead to the crossing and mixing of languages that have gained their writing. Moreover, even already formed literary language can fall under the process of dividing as a result of historical conditions. The Portuguese language has changed in Brazil so much that it gives warrant to linguists to talk about the special language of Brazil. The same trend is occurring in U.S. English. However, defending the priority of the divergent development of languages, we cannot, strictly speaking, absolutize the generality of any language at any stage of its development, as human speech is always individual and therefore any language has always separate dialects which do not interfere the perception of language as a certain variable phenomenon.

Language changes are running very slowly. Morris Swadesh has explained this process. He argued that changes in language should not be so immense lest understanding between the three living generations from grandparents to grandchildren were interrupted. Thus, during three generations, this is period of 60-75 years, language is being undergone very minor changes, so for 200-300 years, the language cannot be changed beyond recognition. The study of place names in Western Ukraine, identifiable by means of the Chuvash language, shows that it was little changed since the Scythian period, and this chronological link helps to reconstruct the history of the Turkic languages better. The same can be said about the Kurdish language and the German group languages. Large conservatism being inherent to all languages, though in varying degrees, suggests that the formation of one language (in practice this process is the complication, enrichment of proto-language) occurs in a small area that provides closer contact between different groups of people, who spoke earlier in the less-developed mother tongue. Therefore it is unreasonable to say that some language was formed, for example, on the vast expanses of Siberia, or even the East European Plain.

Biblical Stories as Historical Documents

The results of these studies support the idea that the Bible is a true historical document. In keeping with the biblical stories, several groups of speakers of Nostratic language macro-family populated the Transcaucasia near the lakes Van, Sevan, and Urmia (Rezayє) located around the Old Testament Mount Ararat. Here, due to geological processes, rather closed habitats have been formed within which six Nostratic proto-languages were arisen, giving start to the Indo-European, Semitic-Hamitic, Dravidian, Kartvelian, Uralic, and Altaic languages. Anthropologists accept the idea of the possible existence of hotbeds on the Earth where main processes of race-forming were developed. The location of one of such hotbeds is supposed in the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean. Similar insignificant at first glance convergence, being put together, multiply the probability that the biblical stories are based on actual facts.

The supposed residence territory of the speakers of the Nostratic languages has been formed by numerous mountain ranges and plateaus. Places of settlements were very suitable for the life of prehistoric man due to the good environment. Wild species of cultivated at present plants such as wheat, barley, and legumes were spread in the Middle East widely. At about the 9th mill BC man begun to engage in a primitive economy – agriculture and cattle breeding. Archaeological evidence suggests that in the 8-9th mill BC Asia Minor was inhabited by people of rather high cultural level. Small farming and pastoral groups populated the Zagros Mountains, Sinjar, and the Taurus and only occasionally came down to valleys.

Good evidence for the texts of the Bible may be subject of Deluge, which is present in the Ural (in particular the Khanty-Mansi) mythology, but the significance of the Khanty-Mansi legend of Deluge loses something its significance because of similar legends are spread among peoples all over the world. However the name of Mount Ararat reminds of the common for Turkic languages word aral "island" joined with OTurk art "mountain". Thus the original name of the mountain could be restored as *Aralart, ie "Island mountain". The existence of three lakes around Mount Ararat can be associated with the legend of Noah and his three sons – Sim, Ham, and Japheth, who could establish their own settlements in the valleys around these lakes, giving rising of separate clans parted henceforth. In this connection, you may pay attention to the legend of Adam. The word adam meaning "a man" is present in almost all Turkic languages, as well as in Iranian and Caucasian. It is believed that this word has Persian-Arabic origin, but there is reason to believe that this word was present in all Nostratic languages or even preserved in many modern languages in a modified form.

Comparative Ethnography as an Instrument for Learning Ways of the Development of Spiritual Culture of Different Peoples

It is known that the so-called principle of superposition occurs during the migration of different ethnic groups very often. That is during the migration of ethnic groups some of them stayed at the old place of residence and they could be superimposed by the new alien population of another ethnic origin. Thus, the newly arrived population of other cultures and languages was undergone the spiritual influence of the remaining old-timers. The aliens perceive from them existing place names, vocabulary necessary for new conditions, and also often liked customs and rituals. Knowing exactly which ethnic groups, in turn, inhabited the same territory, we can specifically study not only the common features of their languages but also their spiritual and material culture. For example, knowing that the territory of Western Ukraine was once inhabited by the ancient Bulgars, we can study cultural and social connections between Ukrainians and Chuvash. They can be found in folk songs, dances, embroidery, handicrafts. The observed analogies can characterize not only the continuity and interaction of cultures but also estimate the time of occurrence and existence of new beliefs, customs, and the source of their borrowing. We concluded that the Urheimat of the ancient Greeks were in the area, which was later inhabited by the northern Germans, and further by the ancestors of the Ukrainians. The Greek language substrate confirms this conclusion. However, evidence can be found also by comparing the ethnography of the ancient Greeks and the Ukrainians. For example, folk dances under the same name "Crane" were known among the ancient Greeks and Ukrainians. Judging from the descriptions of dancing, they very similar to each other. Consequently, this dance existed among the Greeks already five thousand years ago, now they have forgotten it during the turbulent events of their own history, but the Ukrainians, being more tied to their tradition, maintained it to this day. Sure, this dance was supposed to exist by the Northern Germans. As its availability and its absence may be important for science facts. We can also specify the other Greek-Ukrainian cultural parallel having the analogy also in other East Slavic peoples. The Ukrainian word korovod, khorovod (Russian khorovod, Bruss. karagod, etc.) “round dance” agreed with gr. χορεια “round dance" and χοροσ ”choir". Slavic words have no satisfactory etymology, so it is likely that they were the ancient Greek culture substrate, as the tradition of the round dances too.

Initial Structuring of Human Society

Human society is a complex, self-regulating, hierarchical system, structured in many ways. At the lowest level, humanity was divided into three basic anthropological races – the white, yellow, and black, which were extended spatially, but not insurmountable boundaries. Subsequent the cross-breeding between the primary races provided more variability and polymorphism of the human species, but in the long historical perspective, they could level the anthropological differences, if the structuring of the human community would not have a place in other ways. Along with the anthropological structuring, humanity began structuring on the basis of family ties for the smallest building blocks of what were the kin community. Competition between different communities in the struggle for survival will inevitably lead to their integration into larger subsystems on the basis of one conspicuous feature. This feature became a common language, the emergence of which is not associated in itself with people's awareness of their specific community and is only a consequence of specific geographical conditions. The formation of separate languages occurred in fairly confined geographical areas on certain natural laws, but awareness of the linguistic community people was mainly influenced by social factors. The feedback of social conditions influences on the further development of a common language as a sign of membership to a particular social and public group. The awareness of such membership is a prerequisite for the formation of the primary ethnic entities. Later variable combinatorics of linguistic, cultural, religious, economic, and political factors, intermittent by processes of integration and differentiation, formed the complicated structure of human society.

On the Potential Possibilities of Different Nations and Races

Undoubted achievements of European culture and, especially, the success of European science and technology gave and give the warrant to think of some special talent of the Europeans. In our time, it is considered indecent to express such thoughts, but indirect evidence that such ideas are fairly common can be found in historical scholarship. Formed even in the last century view of the special role of the Indo-Europeans in world history is supported by erroneous theories. One of these theories is the imaginary identity of the culture of cord ornament and battle-axes with the Indo-Europeans. Undoubtedly there is a psychological barrier to recognizing that the creators of this culture were the ancient Turks, moreover, by supposing their Urheimat somewhere in the Altai. To be fair to admit that the view of the Turkic identity of this culture is supported by some European scholars too. The Turkic population of the Black Sea and Azov Sea in the 3rd mill BC was on a higher level of development than the Indo-Europeans and had to have a great cultural influence on them, traces of which can be found in different Indo-European languages. Well-known European scientists do not dare to admit such effects, treating the obvious facts as random or founding for them fantastic assumptions.

That head start is largely the same for different people, and that they depend purely on natural factors, can speak Japanese example. Studies have shown that once they lived in proximity to the ancestors of the present Nani (Golds), Negidals, Oroches, Udege, Ulchi, Evenks, Evens, and others, now extinct, people. There is no evidence to suggest that the Japanese differed from them by some special abilities. Later the Japanese moved to the isolated islands, called by their name, and, coming in the new environmental conditions, were forced to a new way of life – farming and sea fishing. Isolation and diverse economic activities determined the future course of development of Japanese society. Their neighbors, who settled in the vast expanses of Siberia and the Far East continued their former way of life and preserve the traditional social order. Now the difference between the cultural achievements of once close peoples is enormous.

On the Regeneration of Ethnoi

As we have seen on the example of the Japanese and small peoples of Siberia and the Far East, despite the same starting opportunities, contribution to world culture of different people is different. Quantitative estimation of this difference is complicated because the values vary from age to age. It is quite impossible to relate the value of the invention of bow and arrows a few millennia ago and the invention of the computer in the last century, if we abstract from the time when these inventions were made. Only in the light of the period, one can understand that both innovations gave a new impetus to the development of human civilization. However, not only one person stays behind every invention, but also a certain mentality of human society, its cultural paradigm of development in certain conditions and at certain times. And it is not obligatory that the ancestors of some people who played a major role in the development of human civilization in the past played a commensurate role to the present. Oswald Spengler wrote that civilization originates, develops, achieves prosperity and dies. Much the same can be said about ethnic groups, with the only difference is that the ethnic groups in most cases do not die and fade away or assimilated by other ethnic groups, if, falling in adverse conditions, do not undergo a process of constant renewal. Sometimes these updates are so profound character that cultural continuity between distant generations of the same ethnic group is so obscure, that does not allow the researcher to recognize the ethnic community of creators of archaeological cultures, separated by a large time interval. Meanwhile, it can happen that the break of cultural tradition does not speak about the disappearance of ethnicity as one sign of ethnicity – his tongue remains in spite of its nature of the variable phenomenon. In this respect, the example of the ethnic history of Chuvash is interesting. The studies have shown that their ancestors formed a certain, very large part of the Scythians. Arguing about this means contrary to generally accepted views of science. Cultural continuity between the Scythians and the Chuvash at first glance is inconspicuous and some analogies and similarities are examined as coincidental. The Chuvash themselves have not kept any legends about their Scythian past. In such circumstances, any possible scientific speculation is possible and it really takes place. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that between the Chuvash and the Scythians is a direct linguistic and cultural continuity, though Chuvash has undergone a certain ethnic rebirth.

Despite the fact that some ethnic groups are sometimes assimilated by others, not to say that they always disappear. Assimilated among the foreign-language ethnic group, they nevertheless have an impact on his ethnopsychology and to a lesser extent on the language, mainly in his vocabulary.

Five thousand years ago, all Turks were Caucasoid appearance. As a result of the settlement of large expanses of Central Asia, many Turkish people have mixed with local Mongoloids and completely changed their appearance. Nevertheless, the Turkic linguistic community remains. It is clear that the Mongoloid Turks and Caucasians Turks are significantly different from one another in genetic terms, but the continuity of language gives us reason to believe that the process of genetic regeneration of Mongoloid Turks was not realized by them, a language of distant Caucasoid ancestors has always remained as a sign of belonging to some ethnic group There it should be also added that the same imperceptible was a change of language.

Strictly speaking, ethnicity and linguistic communities are the concepts not identical, except for linguistic community an ethnos assumes more other distinguishing features. But since the existence of language covers an extended period of many generations and it cannot exist without its users, it is absolutely necessary to introduce the new concept for describing historical community in which people use language, at least of one of its biological parent and thus ensure the transfer of the changed in one or another degree language to their offsprings.

Ethnogenesis as a Scientific Outlook

At a certain period of human history, ethnogenetic processes are complicated, and their study requires different techniques than those used in our studies. Language, which was the defining feature of ethnicity till that time, partly loses its significance for ethnic identity, and instead it the membership to a particular state or religion begins to affect the processes of ethnogenesis. In place of the geographical boundaries come political ones which sometimes interrupted or very complicate communication between different parts of the same primary ethnos. The languages of particular ethnic groups are affected by the language of the dominant nation and the language of the church and printed materials by educational development. New elements of ethnic communities appear and develop leading to the formation of modern nations. The historical perspective of these nations depends on how well they retain their own identity, due to their ethnogenesis, and how they can resist leveling influence of progressive globalization.

Globalization contradicts one of the most important principles of organization of nature and human society, the principle of polymorphism, and therefore will not contribute to the common development of mankind, though it can be challenging for a "challenge" in the sense in which it was understood by Arnold J. Toynbee. The experience of individual cultures included in itself two broad categories – the acquired and inherited experience. At the same time the acquired experience, which most significant achievements are expanded worldwide, is promoted by globalization. However, it to a large extent restricts creativity, prevents the development of original thinking, limits the scope of the search for new ways in science, culture, and technology. On the contrary, the inherited experience can be a basis for new creative exploration and at the same time ensure originality in searching ways and means, which is essential significant for human civilization in general. But we cannot exclude that the inherited experience of individual nations may have hopeless achievements which cannot benefit the whole of mankind, and therefore each nation in its own interest has to get rid of negative experience, learning achievement of other cultures. The inherited experience of individual nations is a result and consequence of their ethnogenesis, in which language is the most archaic and the most important factor. The study of the ethnogenesis of any people will to some extent, not only predict its future but also correct its inherited experience. But such correction by the method of discarding the negative components and the assimilation of human achievements cannot be extended to the language of ethnicity, for any language never can be negative experiences because it, in any event, complies with its communicative functions. People deprived of their own language and focused only on the assimilation of the acquired experience of mankind have no historical perspective.