Determinism as a doctrine of general causality, interconnection, and conditionality of various phenomena and processes in human life and in the Universe unites the past and the future into one process; this is recognized by many thinkers and has been used in research, at least since the time of Newton and Vico:
The great physical tradition of Newton had necessarily been one of determinism, where a perfect knowledge of the universe at one instant is understood to involve perfect knowledge of its history throughout all time (WIENER NORBERT. 1956: 34.)
Historical processes are much more complicated than physical ones since a human participates in them having free will, but the principle of determinism must be present in them. Observations in everyday life convince us that future events are to a certain extent determined by the past. The knowledge acquired in childhood influences the future life path of a person; the capitals accumulated by parents provide the best starting opportunities for their children; the language formed in the past affects the mentality of an individual people in the present; practical experience in certain areas of human activity facilitates the assimilation and implementation of new achievements in science and technology. A loan taken from a bank determines human behavior for many years to come. The history of human society, consisting of many similar events, cannot be undetermined. Based on such general reasoning, we will try to evaluate the judgment about the historical superiority of the Anglo-Saxons, which was formed after many years of research into ethnogenetic processes that took place on the territory of Eurasia
As a result of these studies, it became obvious that, compared with other peoples who had certain successes during a short period of history but eventually faded into the background, the Anglo-Saxons remained at the forefront with short breaks for almost three millennia. Let us follow concisely the stages of this long journey, most of which remain unknown to the general public. Great help in restoring the history of the Anglo-Saxons of ancient times is provided by the toponymy left by them throughout Eurasia. More than 1,500 toponyms have been found in this space, decipherable using Old English or Old Saxon languages. All of them are mapped in the Google My Maps system.
The ancestral home of the Anglo-Saxons, determined using the graphic-analytical method, was located in the ethno-forming area limited by the Pripyat, Teterev, and Sluch rivers, that is, in the same place where the ancestral home of the Italics (STETSYUK VALEBTYN 1998: 75-77) and their genetic substrate undoubtedly passed to the Anglo-Saxons to some extent (see the map below). Этот ареал был разделен реками Уборть и Уж на три ареала, на которых сформировались племена англов, саксов и ютов. First they dispersed in different directions, then, enriched by various historical experiences, they converged on the British Isles to form one single nation.
The space of the Anglo-Saxons was located north of the Scythian settlements. The name of the city of Zhytomyr, which has survived since then, can be explained as a "protective border" (from the Scythians) based on OE. scyttan "close" and meræ "border".
Toponymy, anthroponymy, and mythology testify that the Scythians were the Bulgars, the ancestors of the modern Chuvash. Although the Anglo-Saxons were significantly inferior to the Bulgars in terms of numbers, they left an expressive mark in Scythian history. The very Greek name of the Scythians Σκυθαι comes from OE. scytta "shooter". The Scythians were considered the best archers, and in ancient Greek, the ethnonym "Scythian" was considered a synonym for an arrow. Also, some realities of the Scythian time are deciphered using the Old English language, for example:
ακινακεσ (akinakes), a short iron Scythian sword – OE. ǽces "an ax" and nǽcan "to kill".
σαγαρισ (sagaris), battle-ax, weapon of the Scythians – OE. sacu "war" and earh “arrow”.
Many proper names, geographical names and ethnonyms of the Scythian-Sarmatian times can also be deciphered using Old English or Old Saxon languages. All of them are summarized in Alano-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon and below are some excerpts from it:
Αγαθιρσ (agathirs), Αγαθιρσοι (agatirsoi) – OE đyrs (thyrs) "giant, demon, magician" is well suited both for the name and for the ethnonym. For the first part of the name we find ege “fear, horror”, together “terrible giants or demons” or OE āga "owner", āgan "to have, take, receive, possess".
Αναχαρσισ (Anakharsis) – OE. āno „without”, OE. hors/hyrs (Eng. horse) (that is "horseless").
Βορυσθενεοσ (Boristheneos), the Dnieper River – OE. bearu, Gen. bearwes „forest”, đion „to grow”.
Budinoi (Budinoi), perhaps even "Wudinoi", according to Herodotus, were the inhabitants of the forest country. In this case, OE widu, wudu "wood, forest", Eng wooden by the meaning and phonetically are suitable perfect. The word wuden was not found in Old English but it could exist and be an adjective von "forest" on the laws of English grammar.
Ιδανθιρσοσ (Idantirsos), Scythian king – OE eadan "performed, satisfied” and đyrs "a giant, demon, wizard".
Despite the fact that part of the Anglo-Saxons at some time migrated to the west, many of them continued to remain in Eastern Europe and there is reason to associate the "royal" Scythians with them. The prerequisite for this was that some part of the Anglo-Saxons occupied the area in the Donbas, rich in deposits of copper ores, which shows the accumulation of places names around the Kartamysh copper mine north of Debaltseve. By taking control of the copper ore industry and metalworking, they achieved economic superiority over the multilingual population of the Northern Black Sea region and, as a result, political dominance. Over time, Angl0-Saxons became the head of the Sarmatian union of tribes under the name of Alans, which is described in detail in the article "Alans-Angles-Saxons" but here it is worth mentioning an important historical evidence about the location of the ancestral home of the Anglo-Saxons. The author of the Old English poem "Widsith" reports that he arrived at the court of the king of the Ostrogoths, Ermanaric (IV century AD) from the east.
The Hun invasion forced the Alans to leave the Northern Black Sea region. Some moved to Western Europe, others retreated to the North Caucasus, and still, others migrated to the Volga region. Continuing to play the role of leaders among the peoples of the North Caucasus, the Alans established their own state, known in history as the Khazar Khaganate. This topic is discussed in the article "Khazars", but here we will only indicate that the titles of the ruling elite of the kaganate are deciphered using the Old English language:
The supreme ruler of the ruling duumvirate was hakan – OE. heah "high, great" and ān "single".
Hakan's co-ruler shad – OE. scead "shadden".
Local governorstudun – OE. đeoden "king, lord".
The Khazars called themselves "the retinue of the messenger" (OE. hōs "retinue", ār "messenger, herald, angel"). The capital of the Khaganate could be a city located in the Volga delta on the place of the city of Summerkent, which was mentioned by William of Rubruck in the description of his journey to the eastern countries. The Alans, i.e. the Angles dwelled in this city at that time (RUBRUCK WILLIAM de. 1957: chap.49). The Khazar name of the capital, like the Volga River, was Itil (Atil) out of OE. æđel "noble, noble, beautiful". Another big city of the Khazars was Saxin (KHVOLSON D.A. 1869: 63).
Later, the Alans were among the many peoples known from the annals under the common name of the Cumans. In the North Caucasus, namely to the north of the Klukhor Pass, the last Alans in the amount of "a thousand souls" still remained at the end of the 18th century, as reported by the traveler and archaeologist Jan Potocki in 1797 (ZUKERMAN C. 2005Ö 82). And a few tens of kilometers from this pass, in the valley of the Bolshoy Zelenchuk, in 1888 a stone stele was found with an inscription that can be deciphered using the Old English language as follows: "Sax Nikolai is buried here, doomed to death by a treacherous arrow of an insidious servant, decorated with a strong pillar adorning the way – gave the nephew Theophilus". Perhaps here was the grave of the Cumanic Khan Sakz', who had a brother Begubars, whose name can be deciphered using OE. beg “berry” and ūfer “shore” (generally “currant”, cf. Ukrainian porіchki “berries along rivers” meaning “currants”). Other Anglo-Saxons among the Polovtsian khans could be Iskal and Kytan (For more on this, see in Russian Zelenchuk inscription).
The Alans, who spread across the East European Plain, left traces of their presence in more than 700 toponyms, among which the most common are: Markovo (97 settlements), Levkovo (25), Churilovo (24), Ryazanovo (22), Fatyanovo (18), Boldino (11), Burkovo (10). They have a such explanation:
Markovo, Markino and similar – OE. mearc, mearca "border", "sign", "mark", "county", "designated space".
Levkovo, Levkivka, Levkiv a.o. – OE. lēf «weak», cofa «hut, cabin».
Churilovo –OE.ceorl "a man, peasant, husband", Eng. churl.
Ryazanovo – OE rāsian "to explore, investigate".
Fatyanovo – OE. fatian "to get".
Boldino – OE bold "house, home".
Burkovo – OE burg "borough".
Initially, the Anglo-Saxons concentrated in the interfluve of the Volga and Oka. From time immemorial, Finno-Ugric tribes lived in these places, and the Slavs advanced here only at the end of the first millennium AD, but even before their arrival, cities already existed here, the names of which indicate that they were founded by the Anglo-Saxons:
Murom, a town in Vladimir Region – OE mūr «wall», ōm «rust».
Rostov, a town in Yaroslavl Region – OE. rūst "rust".
Suzdal, a city in Vladimir Region – OE. swæs «nice, pleasant, loved», dale «valley».
Ryazan city, the administrative center of Region. – OE. rāsian "examine", "study", "test".
On the opposite bank of the Volga, the settlements of the Bulgars were concentrated, who also moved there from the Black Sea steppes simultaneously with the Anglo-Saxons, but arrived there from Khazaria and at a later time. Events in the Middle Volga region at the end of the first millennium AD had a great impact on the history of all of Europe. After the economic rapprochement of Khazaria with the Arabs, Muslim merchants from the countries of the Arab Caliphate began to visit this country for barter with the local population from the end of the 8th century (KOMAR A.V. 2017: 61, 67). In exchange for the furs of sables, squirrels, ermines, ferrets, martens, foxes, beavers, goat and horse skins, wax, honey, fish glue, beaver stream, amber, and slaves, merchants offered luxury items and silver. Attracted by the possibility of quick enrichment, the Varangians from Scandinavia also began to penetrate here.
The activity of the Varangians ensured the influx of huge capital into Western Europe in the form of silver, the size of which can be judged by the content of treasures found along the routes of their trade and predatory campaigns. On these routes, export-import operations brought merchants fabulous profits, reaching 1000% (KIRPICHBIKOV A.N. 2006: 34). The slave trade was especially lucrative. The amount of money supply that was in circulation at that time can be judged by the composition and number of random finds of treasures containing coins of different minting. There are about 700 hoards with Kufic dirhams in European Russia, and at the same time, there are finds with several hundred and even thousands of coins. In the hoard found in Murom, two copper jugs contained 11 thousand dirhams of the 8th-10th centuries with a total weight of about 42 kg (VEKSLER A.G., MELNIKOVA A.S. 1973: 18). Such an abundance of treasures suggests that a significant part of the trading capital was concentrated in the hands of the ruling elite of the Anglo-Saxons, who robbed the indigenous population and supplied furs, slaves, and other goods to the Varangians. Obviously, Rostov and Murom were the administrative centers of the two dominant Anglo-Saxon tribes in the territories of the later Vladimir-Suzdal and Muromo-Ryazan principalities.
Russian historians, in particular, V.O. Klyuchevsky do not see a clear answer to the question of what soil the new Upper Volga Rus grew up in (KLUCHEVSKY V.O. 1956: 272). And S.M. Solovyov called the fall of Kyiv after its capture by Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1169 "an event of the greatest importance, a turning point, from which history took a new course, from which a new order of things began in Russia" (SOLOVYOV S.M.. 1969. Book II, chapter 6). According to the logic of things, the interception of the initiative of state building from Kyiv by the "Upper Volga Rus" is difficult to explain if you do not know the prehistory. From the second quarter and the middle of the XI century, with the development of the path "from the Varangians to the Greeks", close trade, and cultural and political ties between Kyiv and Byzantium begin. Thus, Kyiv learned from it the experience of state building and the development of state traditions. There, a dynastic rule is established by people “ready to convert economic dominance into political domination” (TOLOCHKO ALEKSEY, 2015: 314).In this sense, the region of the Upper Volga turned out to be better prepared than Kyiv. The son of the Grand Duke of Kyiv Vladimir Monomakh, Yuri Dolgoruky, having become the prince of Rostov-Suzdal, used local capital to develop the principality by building new cities. For this, craftsmen and working hands were needed, and he gathered people from everywhere, but mainly from the south, and provided them with a considerable loan and other assistance (KORSAKOV D. 1872: 76). No information about where he took the money from was preserved in the annals, but his successors, obviously, used the same sources. His son Andrey Bogolyubsky had already strengthened himself so much that he was able to organize an aggressive campaign against Kyiv, which led to its decline. 12 Russian princes took part in the campaign, together with Cumanic princes and Hungarians who joined them, Czechs, Poles, Lithuania, and many hosts simultaneously moving to Kyiv (TOLOCHKO PETRO. 1996: 123). Historians do not find any visible reasons for such an organized campaign to destroy the capital of the principality, which could not be absolutely hostile to all its close and distant neighbors. The unification of heterogeneous forces can only be explained by the intention of Andrey Bogolubsky, who alone had sufficient funds to organize and finance this entire grandiose undertaking. Bogolyubsky himself did not begin to reign in Kyiv but put his younger brother on the reign, thus becoming the founder of a new state. The wealth accumulated by the Anglo-Saxons over the centuries became the starting capital for the formation of the future empire.
It is quite clear that the ongoing expropriation of private property from the owners, necessary for the further development of the state, could not do without conflicts between Bogolyubsky and the Anglo-Saxon nobility. The feud ended in a conspiracy, as a result of which Bogolyubsky was killed. Two years after the assassination, most of the conspirators were executed, and this did not foreshadow the reconciliation of the Vladimir princely government with the Anglo-Saxons, who had great influence in Suzdal and Rostov. Knowing the further fate of the Anglo-Saxons, it is fashionable to assume that, fearing further persecution and being unable to resist the growing Vladimir, their leaders considered it best to take most of their fellow tribesmen beyond the Urals. The rest tried to quickly get away from Vladimir and concentrated in the Moscow region, as evidenced by the accumulation of Anglo-Saxon place names around it and the very name of Moscow (in the annals of Moscowa) originated from OE. mos "swamp", and cofa "shack, hut". Other most expressive place names are the following:
Dedenevo, an urban locality – OE. dead "dead", eanian "to lamb, yean".
Dydyldino, a village in Leninsky district, Moscow Region – OE. dead "dead", ielde "people".
Chertanovo, a housing area in Moscow – OE. ceart "a wasteland, wild common land".
Fofanovo, a village in Dmitrovsky district, Moscow Region– OE fā "colorful, motley, potted, dyed", fana "cloth".
Kartmazovo, a rural locality in Moskovsky Settlement – OE. ceart "a wasteland, wild common land", māga "son, descendant".
Kitay-gorod, a cultural and historical area within the central part of Moscow – OE. ciete "hut, cabin".
Kuntsevo, a district of Moscow – OE cynca "cluster, bunch".
Lytkarino, a town in Moscow Region – OE. lyt "little", carr "stone, rock".
Mamyri, a village in Novomoskovsky Administrative district of Moscow – OE. mamor(a) "deep sleep".
Miusy, a historical district in Moscow – OE. mēos "swamp, bog".
Penyagino, a former village that became part of Moscow in 1984 – OE. pæneg "coin, money".
Sin'kovo, a village in Dmitrovsky district – OE. sinc "treasure, riches".
White Rast, a village in Dmitrovsky district – OE. ræst "quiet, calm".
The subsequent rise of Moscow from a small village to the level of the capital of a great empire cannot be explained otherwise than by the influence of the Anglo-Saxons on the beginning of this process.
Meanwhile, the Anglo-Saxons beyond the Urals established the Pelym principality, which existed until the end of the 16th century on the site of the accumulation of Anglo-Saxon place names around the city of Tyumen. The basis of the principality's economy was to be made up of furs as a subject of trade, reflected in the name of the village Nіkhvor, the name of which can be associated with OE. neahhe "sufficient, plentiful" waru "goods". Judging by toponymy, the Anglo-Saxons moved further east from Tyumen. To facilitate the advancement of the communication routes, they were forced to arrange small settlements to provide short-term rest for travelers and horses at night and in bad weather, to eliminate technical problems, etc. Such settlements eventually received the names yams and it is not at all of Turkic origin, as is commonly thought, but developed from OE. hām "house, dwelling", "home". At such stations, there were few attendants and they formed a well-functioning system, managed in an organized manner. This practice spread throughout Siberia, being borrowed by many peoples. The organization of movement that justified itself laid the foundation for the colonization of Siberia and the Far East long before the arrival of the Russians. All Anglo-Saxon toponyms reflecting the path of the Anglo-Saxons in Asia are mapped in the Google My Mape system, the screen from which is given below.
The topic of the colonization of Siberia by the Anglo-Saxons is considered separately, but here we will briefly dwell on the Anglo-Saxon origin of Genghis Khan.
The only sources used to reconstruct the events of the early history of the Mongolian state are the official version, which passed strict government censorship, and the work of the unknown author "The Secret History of the Mongols". The version about the origin of Genghis Khan was developed precisely from this source. According to this version, his parents were the Merkits, whom we identify with the Anglo-Saxons.
Genghis Khan's father, Yesügei Ba'atur, with the help of his brothers took away Hö'elün Üjin, the wife of a noble Merkit named Yeke Čiledü. The description of this episode was taken by me from the literal English translation of "The History" and it says that in appearance the kidnappers were other [in countenance] than all the others (CLEAVES FRANCIS WOODMAN, 1982: 12). In free translations (retellings), the word "other" is not taken into account and therefore they usually refer to the expression on the faces of the brothers, which supposedly betrayed their intention to take Čiledü's life. Facial expressions vary and do not always warn of danger. On the contrary, a different appearance, as a constant feature, indicates belonging to an alien tribe that can be hostile, and this is already dangerous. From the text, it is quite clear that Hö'elün herself suggested that Čiledü run away, but first, she asked if he had noticed a different (unusual) appearance of strangers. And it was their appearance that aroused her suspicion and served as the reason for advising her husband to flee. In addition, Yesügei, at the first glance at Hö'elün, also drew attention to her unusual beauty for the Mongols, which attracted him to her (ibid). Onon Urgunge even writes that "he saw a woman of unique color and complexion" (ONON URGUNGE. 2001, 54). In a situation where a woman struck Yesügei with her beauty, the expression on his face could not be intimidating.
In the description of this episode, another English translator of "The History" indicates that the appearance of the kidnappers was strange (odd), and the woman was unusually beautiful that can be understood in different ways (RACHEWILTZ, IGOR de. 2015, 10). The described episode played a big role in the fate of Genghis Khan. It should be assumed that Hö'elün, when she was abducted, was already pregnant from Čiledü since Genghis Khan was fair-haired and blue-eyed, but Rashid ad-Din wrote that even all the descendants of Yesugei were "mostly blue-eyed and red" (RASHID-al-DIN, FAZALLAH: 49). These features could be inherited by Genghis Khan only from his mother because all the Mongols are brunettes. However, blond hair and blue (gray) eyes are inherited approximately as a recessive trait controlled by one gene, so children will have these traits if the necessary genes were on the chromosomes of both parents. Therefore, it must be assumed that Hö'elün was already pregnant by Čiledü, also a blond, at the time of her abduction. The description of Hö'elün's abduction could only get into "The History" from her words. Even its romantic nature speaks of this, but no one could come up with that the kidnappers were different than usual in appearance, and she just wanted to emphasize this circumstance. Thus, we can conclude that the Merkits were blond, just like the Anglo-Saxons. More arguments in favor of the Anglo-Saxon origin of Genghis Khan are given in the article Genghis Khan.
A review of the restored ancient history of the Anglo-Saxons allows us to speak of a certain advantage of the Anglo-Saxons in comparison with other peoples. The reason for this may be a kind of ethnopsychology, morality, physical and other qualities of a typical Anglo-Saxon that distinguish them from other humans.
The question of Anglo-Saxon superiority is not new. In 1897 Edmond Demilins published his book "A quoi tient la superiorite des Anglo-Saxons". The book was an extraordinary success with the French reader, as evidenced by the fact that it was published five times in two months. He claims this two years later in the translation of his book into English, which also speaks of its success (DEMOLINS EDMOND. 1899: 389). These facts suggest that the collective imagination agreed with the author's statement about the superiority of the Anglo-Saxons in the world. The very concept of superiority is emotional in nature and is based on a subjective assessment of historical events in accordance with the prevailing worldview in France at that time. Demolins, making a distinction between the Anglo-Saxons and peoples of Celtic origin, to which he refers the Irish and Scots, bases his opinion on the superiority of the Anglo-Saxons on the success of the United Kingdom and the United States as political organizations. He understands this, but believes that success was achieved precisely thanks to the Anglo-Saxons:
In this work, by the application of the methods of social analysis devised by F. Le Play and completed by H. de Tourville, I seek to carefully isolate and exclusively consider the phenomena which appear to be derived from Anglo-Saxon influence, because these phenomena alone ensure for England and the United States have their social originality and superiority. Above all, I endeavour to make a clear distinction between these phenomena and the customs and institutions peculiar to the Celts and Normans [DEMOLINS EDMOND. 1899: ix].
Various qualities of an individual are inherited and acquired in the process of his life. Initially formed in ancestors according to physiological laws and under the influence of the environment, they are transmitted from generation to generation genetically and also by other mechanisms that evolutionary psychology is now studying:
Genetics of behavior studies the basics of behavior and all that is associated with it – mental illness, a propensity for divorce, political preferences, and even a feeling of satisfaction with life. Evolutionary psychology is looking for mechanisms through which these features pass from generation to generation. Both approaches suggest that nature and education are involved in the formation of behavior, thoughts, and emotions, but in contrast to the practice of the twentieth-century nature has preference now (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI MIHALY. 2008: 89)
The French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843 – 1904) believed that all social life is largely based on the instinct of people to imitate each other, and there are numerous evidences of this in everyday life. In this sense, some people can be an example and imitation model for others. In principle, this means that all peoples have the same natural chances for any achievements in all spheres of public life. However, it must be recognized that some people can have advantages over others from birth due to certain qualities that are inherited. Since the future is determined by the past, their descendants will retain this advantage for many centuries if these qualities are consciously maintained through the upbringing of children. With this in mind, let us consider the peculiarities of the ethnopsychology of the Anglo-Saxons, following the explanations of Edmond Demolins.
Speaking about the difference between the Anglo-Saxons and the Celts, Demolins argues that the Celts were originally shepherds and later did not like to engage in agriculture, which determined their future fate. He goes on to note the difference between the Saxons and the Angles, referring to the sociological studies of de Tourville. If the Saxons, born farmers due to the natural conditions in their ancestral homeland, engaged in agriculture and were content with a small piece of land that they could cultivate themselves, then the Angles sought to expand their territory and dominance over it than engage in agriculture themselves (DEMOLINS EDMOND. 1899: x, xv). In the future, he repeatedly emphasizes the Anglo-Saxons' commitment to the land, their individualism, and the prevalence of private life over public life. This clearly contradicts both the colonial expansion of the Anglo-Saxons in modern times, and their leading position among other peoples in ancient history. If such a dual nature of the Anglo-Saxons really takes place, then it can be assumed that the Saxons left their ancestral home before the Angles and also arrived in Britain earlier. (Ibid: xii). Chronica Gallica ad annum CCCCLII state at the year 441: “The British provinces having up to this time suffering various defeats and calamities were reduced to Saxon rule” [KOCH JOHN T., MINARD ANTONE. 2012: 59]. The Angles moved to the island later and repeatedly. The last wave was the Alans under the leadership of William the Conqueror, and it was they who determined the desire of the Anglo-Saxons for expansion, due to the peculiarities of the stay of the Alans in Eastern Europe.
Demolins explains the superiority of the Anglo-Saxons by the organization of education and upbringing of young people in Britain, which had a practical orientation and distinguished the Bitan school from the French and German. Further, he describes the difference in the behaviour of the Anglo-Saxons and the French in private and public life, which does not explain the reason for the Anglo-Saxon superiority.
At the end of the book are commentaries on Demolins' book, which explain its success and develop the author's thoughts further. It can be seen from them that the book made a lot of noise in France and it greatly influenced the internal politics of France.
At present, the Anglo-Saxons largely determine the great support that the United States and the United Kingdom provide to Ukraine in the war with Russia. The result of the war will give an answer to the question of the existence of the superiority of the Anglo-Saxons over the Russians.