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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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English-Iranian Lexical Correspondences


The contacts between Anglo-Saxons and Iranian population in Pontic steppes was been reflected not only in the Arthurian and Holy Grail legends. Many Old-English-Iranian lexical correspondences evidence the same.

O.E. amber, -or, ember, O.H.G. ambar, Ger Eimer „pail, bucket”, presumed l.w. from L. amphora (this from Greek αμφορευσ) – Iranian ambar „storehouse“ (Pers. ämbar, Pash ambar, Kurd. e’mbar etc).

O.E. æfen „evening”, Ger. Abend „evening“, uncertain origin - Os. afon “time”.

E. babe, baby “a childish person”, supposed onomatopoeic of baby talk – Pers. bäby “child”, perhaps l.-w. from Trc (Kaz. bebe, Tat. bebi, Tur. bebek “child”).

E. bad, no apparent relatives in other Germanic languages – Pash, Yag. bad, Pers. bäd, Kurd. bed , all – „bad“.

O.E. becole „ghost, phantom, guise”, O.H.G. bechela „witch”, unknown origin – Pash bagewa “witch”.

O.E. beow „grain, corn”, O.S. beo, bewod „harvest”, O.Ic. bygg „corn” – Kurd. bûk „barley”.

O.E. bile „bird’s beak, edge”, E. bill, O.S. bil „sward“, O.H.G. bihal „hatchet“ – Kurd. bel „sticked, jutted”, bêvil „nose“, Os. bel, Tad., Gil., Yazg. bil all „shovel, spade“.

O.E. bredian „to shout, call”, unknown origin – Pash bêranda „shout”, Kurd birîn „shout“.

O.E. bredwian “to beat, defeat”, O.H.G. bretòn , unknown origin – Kurd. berîdan “to drive”.

O.E. bridd, bird „young bird“, E. bird, uncertain origin, no relatives in any other Germanic languages, – Pers. part “snipe, Scolopax L.), Yag. paranda „bird“.

O.E. briosa “gadfly, breeze”, E. breeze, unknown origin – Pash brez „bug, bed-bug”, vrêga „flea“, Sar. berga „flea“. Cf. bug.

E. bug „bed-bug” – Yag. bugalak “gadfly, breeze”. Cf. briosa.

O.E. bycgan „to buy“, E. buy, O.S. buggian, Goth.bugjan, unknown origin – Kurd. bayi “trade”, Os. wǽy “sale, selling”, Pash baha, Pers bahā „price“.

O.E. cæfan “to beautify” < *kaifjan, unknown origin – Pash gešeng, Pers. gäšäng, Kurd. geşeng, all “beautiful”.

E. chop “to cut”, uncertain origin – Pers. čapidan, Yazg. caf-, Os. cǽvyn, all – „to beat, strike“.

E. chuck “to throw, hurl” – Kurd. çek “throw”.

O.E. cidan “quarrel”, E. chide, unknown origin – Kurd. cîdal, Pers. jedal, Yazg. ziday, all “wrangle”.

O.E. ciefes, cefes “girl, concubine”, O.S. kevis, O.Ic. kefsir, Ger. Kebse, unknown origin – Yag. zaif, Gil. zaifê, Tad. zavĵa, all – “wife”.

E. cog “tooth on a wheel”, Norw. kugg – Yag. ozax “tooth, wart”, Tad. kūz „hump“, Os. qozo „fungus“.

O.E. corđor “crowd, throng”, O.H.G. kortar “herd” – Os. qord “crowd, throng”.

E. dab, dabben “to strike” – Pash dabav “pressure”, Kurd. dabûn “to bend”.

O.E. deorc, dearc, E. dark, M.H.G. terken “to darken” – Pash tārik, Gil. tarik, kurd tarî, all – „dark“.

O.E. dott “nipple”, E. dot, O.H.G. tutta “nipple” – Yazg. dot “female bust”.

OE eard "fatherland, land, earth", анг. earth – Kurd erd, e'rd “earth, soil”.

O.E. efete “lizard”, E. eft – Pash api , Tad. afi “snake”.

E. fang „tooth“ – Tal. pinge “fang” from F.-U. (Mansi punk., Khanty pönk “tooth” a.o.).

O.E. feorm “food, supply, use” – Kurd. pirmal “rich”.

O.E. ferđing-wyrt “chamomile, Matricaria L.” – Kurd. pûrt “hair”, wurd “clean”. Chamomile is used for hair-washing.

E. fuck “koitieren” – Yag. fuzun “koitieren”.

O.E. gamen “joy, fun”, E. game, O.H.G., O.Ic. gaman – Kurd. geme “game”.

O.E. geat “gate, door”, E. gate, O.Ic. gat “hole” – Pash get. “gate”.

O.E. hogg „pig, hog“, E. hog – Pash xug, Pers. xūg, Gil. xuk, Tal. xüg, all - “pig, hug”, Os. x’ug “kow”.

O.E. hrace „jaws, mouth“, Ger. Rachen, – Yag. rax “jaws, mouth”.

E. jump “springen”, uncertain origin – Yag. jumb “to move”.

O.E. lagu (combining form lah-) „law“, E. law – Pash loxa “custom, custom law”.

E. leg , Swed. lägg “thigh” – Kurd. laq “leg”, Yag. laks “to go”.

O.E. maffa “eggshell”, unknown origin – Kurd. mef “tent”.

O.E. mamor(a) “deep sleep” – Kurd. mehmur, Pers. mäxmur „drunk, tipsy“, "calm", Tur. mamur „comfortable“, Karach., Balk. mamyrlyq „peace, calm“, Hung. mamor „intoxication, unconsciousness“, Kabard. mamyr „peace".

O.E. mođđe, E. moth, O.Ic. motti, Ger. Motte „moth“, uncertain origin – Yag. mĭtta “bread-moth”, Tad. mitta „moth“.

E. narrow - Os. narǽg, Kurd. narîn, Pash naraj “narrow”.

E. oar, Swed. åra “oar”- Tal. avar “Ruder” (from F.-U.).

O.E. pot, E. pot – Gil. påtil, Tad. potila “pot”, all from F.-U. (Fin. pata, Est., Veps pada, Mari pad “pot” a.o.).

E. push – Yag. fuzzon “to push”.

E. ram, Ger. Ramm „ram“ – Yag. ron “lamb”.

O.E. reo, reowe “cover” – Kurd. rav “cloud”.

O.E. riht, E. right, Ger. recht – Pash. rixtja “truth”. The root belong to I.-E. heritage, but Germanic and Pashto words coincide in meaning and phonetics best of all.

E. search – Pash surağ, Pers, sorağ “to search”.

E. send – Kurd. şandin “to send”.

O.E. spearca “spark”, E. spark, M.L.G. sparke - Pash spêrgêj “spark”.

O.E. teart “sharp, severe”, E. tart “sharp taste”, unknown origin – Os. tyrty “barberry” (of sour taste), Kurd. tirş „sour“.

O.E. tǽl, E. tall Kurd. tala “height”, Gil. tal “mountain”, Tad. tal “hill”

O.E. tillian “to work, plough”, E. till “to cultivate land”, O.S. tilian „to obtain“, Ger. Zeile „line“, unknown origin – Os., tillǽg “corn, harvest”.

O.E. tìma “time”, E. time, O.Ic. timi „time“ – Kurd. dem “time”, Yag. damak “moment”.

O.E. tūsc “fang”, E. tusk – Os. tusk’a “wild boar” (“having fangs”).

O.E. weft, E. weft from "weave" - Os. wǽvd “weft”.

E. wherry “boat” - Pash berêj “ship, boat”.