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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Turkic-Slavic Language Connections.


For the first time, Czech researcher J.Peisker (Peisker J.1905) paid attention to language connections between Slavs and Turkis and created the original theory of Slavic-Turkic relation which has been stated in the work “Die ältesten Beziehungen der Slawen zu Turkotataren und Germanen”. His sights have been criticized, among others, by L.Niederle who considered that Slavic-Turkic contacts could not exist if the question about any “Turanian approaching”. Taking into account the presence of the ancient Bulgar-Scythians on the territory of what is now Western Ukraine (STETSYUK VALENTYN. 2000: 18-20), long-standing contacts of the Western Slavs with the Turks (Turkic-speaking Scythians) have a real basis and explanation. A significant part of the Bulgars remained in the places of their previous settlement until the arrival of the Slavs after the other part went to the steppes. For a certain period, they lived close to the Ukrainians, until they completely assimilated among them. During this time, Ukrainians and their closest neighbors learned some elements of culture and language from the Bulgars. The Scythians spoke the ancient Bulgarish language, which, more than other Turkic languages, retained the features of the ancient Turkic. Its continuation is currently Chuvash. Not all Turkologists share this opinion. Whether Chuvash is a Turkic language, like any other, or forms a separate group occupying a special position between Turkic and Mongolian in the Altai language family has not yet been finally resolved. Accordingly, the attitude toward the Chuvash lexical material remains restrained (STACHOWSKI MAREK. 2019: 7). This work is designed to change the existing situation. The article has a similar goal. Turkic-Germanic Language Connections. Both works are based on the presence of ancient Turks in Europe in prehistoric times.

Turkic linguistic influences on the Slavs cover a large period, however, later Turkic borrowings, of which there are a lot in both the South Slavic and East Slavic languages, can be explained by well-known historical circumstances. The most ancient can only be those present in Chuvash, while those that do not have matches must be borrowings from historical times. There are more such words in the Russian language. These include, for example, baibak "marmot", barsuk "badger", bugay "sire", kabluk "heelpiece", kushak "sash", palach "executioner", sunduk "chest" and many others. The word kolpak "cap", which is not in the Ancient Turkic dictionary, should be included in this class. Although the Chuvash language has the word kalpak, it is borrowed from the Tatar of later times (SEVORTIAN E.V. 1997: 236). At the same time, the presence of lexical matches to Chuvash words in Western Slavic languages can shed light on prehistoric processes. The Turkisms could penetrate the Polish language through Ukrainian, and Slovak, and Czech through Hungarian. For example, Slc čakan "hoe" is clearly of Turkic origin (Chag. čakan "battle ax"), but there is a Hung. csakany, so this word cannot be considered. The same can be said about Slc., Cz. salaš, Rus. shalash “hut”, which has equivalents in both the Turkic and Hungarian languages. Such words are a lot, however, there are in Machek’s etymological dictionary examples of Turkisms whose ways of infiltration to Czech and Slovak languages remain enigmatical (А.MACHEK V. 1957).

However, in the Chuvash language there are words without reliable parallels in other Turkic languages, which have correspondences in Ukrainian. In this study, Slavic correspondences to Chuvash words will mainly be considered. Borrowings could be mutual. It should be recalled that in the languages of the population of Eastern Europe, there was a special sound, the fricative trill rz/rs, which could change in different languages either in r/l, or s/š (STETSYUK VALENTYN. 2000: 29, 55). The fact that such a sound could exist is confirmed by Polish and Czech grammars, which provide for notation in rz and ř for a certain phoneme, which replaced the Proto-Slavic soft sound r’ in Czech and Polish. In Czech ř corresponds to the sounds and , and Polish rz to the sounds ž and š. Since the ancient ancestors of modern Czechs inhabited an area not far from the area of the Scythian-Bulgars (ibid, 38), replacing the Proto-Slavic r' with rz could have occurred under the influence of the Bulgar substrate, in the Polish language, a similar phenomenon occurred under the influence of Czech. The existence of a special sound similar to r is confirmed by Armenian orthography, which distinguishes two sounds, r and rr (long). When writing in Arm. antar “forest”, a word that has a Turkic counterpart in Gag. andyz, it is the long rr that is used, which reflects the fact that in this case in the language of the Proto-Armenians, there was, in addition to the usual sonorant r, also a slightly different sound, which testifies in favor of the hypothesis about the existence of the sound rz in the Turkic language rs. The ancestors of the Armenians and Gagauz were neighbors in their ancestral homeland (STETSYUK VALENTYN. 1998: 52,56), which predetermined the presence of correspondences in their languages.

The Türks, who moved to Asia, brought this feature of their phonetics there as well. The ancient ancestors of the Mongols and Tungus, having borrowed many Turkic words, articulated this sound from the very beginning as r, while the Bulgars simplified the pronunciation rz/rs into a regular r much later, but the same result of replacing a complex sound with a more complex one simple now gives grounds to talk about imaginary Bulgar-Mongol connections, which never took place.In the scientific world, the phenomena of imaginary transitions z to r and vice versa are called Rhotacism or, accordingly, Zetacism. Below is a list of discovered ancient Turkic-Slavic lexical matches, which will be constantly updated with new finds. From the phonological features of the given examples, except for the encountered fricative trill rz/rs, denoted by the letter ř, you can pay attention to the rather frequent transition b↔ m and to the fact that in the Chuvsh language voiceless sounds before vowels are pronounced almost like voiced ones, which is not reflected in the spelling.

In the list below, Turkic words brought into line with Slavic ones, in the overwhelming majority, following the available possibilities, are reduced to common Turkic and inter-Turkic monosyllabic vocabulary bases (otvb) as is customary in the editions of the Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages in Latin script (SEVORTIAN E.V. 1974 – 2003). Ancient Turkic designates words taken from the Ancient Turkic dictionary as almost voiced, which is not reflected in the spelling (NADELAYEV V.M. a.o.> и др. 1969)

Note: Bulgarian – modern-day Slavic language

Bulgarish – one of the Turkic languages.

Ukr babay “an old man”. This word is mainly used as “a fearful old man” to frighten small children – OT. baba "father", Turkm. ba:ba "father", "grandfather", K-Balk, "great-grandfather", Chuv papay “old man”, otvb baba. According to Herodotus, the main Scythian deity was Papai. Ukrainians didn’t worship the alien god but feared him lending him fearful features.

Ukr bačyty “to see look”, Pol baczyć, Rus., Slvk bačit' – OT, Turk, Kyrg. a.o. baq-, (Chuv păx) “to look”, otvb baq "to look", "see", look out".

Ukr (West Dial), batiar, Pol batiar, baciarz “a young brave man of cocky behavior, a man of the street” – Chuv mat’ar “frivolous, giddi man”. This word is not considered in the etymological dictionaries of the Chuvash language but Chuv. matur “well done”, “glib”, “handsome”, and “strong” is given, which is compared with Chuv. pattăr "hero", (YEGOROV V.G. 1964., FEDOTOV m.R. 1996: 345) out of OT batur "hero".

Rus braga, Ukr braha “home-made beer” – Max Vasmer supposed the origin of the word in Chuvach pěraga “home-made, watery beer”. He bore in mind Chuv păraka "grains, draff". This word is not considered in the etymological dictionaries of the Chuvash language.

PSl bъrzъ, Rus. borzoy, Ukr. Borzyi "быстрый", Cz. brzy "скоро", Pol. bardzo "very" a.o. Slav – Chuv. păr from *părz "about instant action". The relationship of Slavic words with buria "storm" is rejected, but a connection with Lat. brevis can be (VASMER M. 1964: 194), which is very doubtful.

Rus. braga, укр. braha "folk alcoholic drink" – Max Vasmer admits the origin of the word from Chuv. pěraga “watery beer” (VASMER M. 1964: 205). Maybe, he meant Chuv, păraka “вunder, draff”. This word is not considered in the etymological dictionaries of the Chuvash language.

Ukr budz „fresh sheep's cheese” – Chuv puç „head”.

Укр. будз “свежий овечий сыр” (made in the form of a head) – Chuv. puç “head”, related to otvb baš "head", "top", "start".

Rus. bugor, Ukr. buhir "hill", kr. Dial. magura "mountain" – OT. bükri "crooked", "humpbacked", Kirg. bükür "humpbacked", Tat. börre "humpbacked", "sttooped", Chuv. măkăr “hill, cone”-

Ukr, Rus. chakan "typha" – Chuv. chakan „typha”. Borrowing from the Chuvash language is allowed (VASMER M. 1987: 312)

PSl časъ, Ukr., Bolg., Rus., a.o.. chas "time" – Vhuv. chas "soon", "quickly", "immediately", "often", "early", Tur., Uzb., Kaz., Kirgг. tez "fast". There are a variety of hypotheses about the origin of the word, all of them unconvincing.

Ukr chepurnyj „beautiful, smartened up”, Slvk., Cz. čiperný “alive, mobile”, Serb. čeperan “brisk, mobile”, "swagger" – Chuv. chiper "beautiful", Tat. chibär "beautiful”. According to Melnichuk Psl. čepurity is supposedly a complex formation with the expressive prefix če- and the verb stem purity in a meaning close to spread (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 297).

Psl. *čьrtъ (Rus. chert, UIkr. chort, Pol. czart, Cz., Slvk. čert) – Chuv. khĕrt-surt "ghost". It is worth recalling that Chuv. kh can originate from из k, that is, the Chuvash word originally could have sounded like kĕrt, where from Slavic words naturally came from *čьrtъ. In Scandinavian mythology, there is Surt “fire giant”. Cf. Ukr babay. The Proto-Slavic word is considered as a participle of a verb related to Lith. kyrěti "to get angry" (VASMER M: 1987: 347)

Rus., Bulg., Serb. četa, Ukr. chota "detachment", Rom. ceata "crowd" – "probably related to Lat. caterva "squad", "crowd" (ibid: 341). Chuv. kĕtü "herd, flock", Tat. kɵtү "herd", otvb güt "to pasture".

Ukr chumak “Ukrainian traveling salt-marchant” – the word has no etymology, but is considered borrowed from Turkic (Melnychuk O.S. 2012: 354) and may not be ancient, but, interestingly, the Kyrgyz language has a similar word čomču "“Qazakh traveling salt merchant”.

Ukr. chy is the interrogative word – Chuv. –shy – the interrogative particle. Lat. qui “why?”, “how?”, “how much?”

West Slavic *dъbati (Ukr. dbaty, Pol dbać, Czech dbati) “to hold in order, good condition” – Chuv. tăp "accurate". The origin of the Chuvash word is not considered in dictionaries. The origin of Slavic words is assumed to be from the original meaning “to seek”, “to receive”, and “to explore the area”(MELNYCHUK O.S. 1085: 15-16).

PSl. gǫba, Pol. gęba, Rus. guba, Ukr. huba, Cz. houba “lip, mushroom” – Chuv. kămpa “mushroom”. The Chuvash word was “borrowed in ancient times (in the Bulgarish era) from the East Slavic language when the nasal vowel sound Yus big still existed there” (YEGOROV V.G. 1964: 99).

PSL gǫsli, the oldest East Slavic multi-string plucked instrument (Bulg. gъsla, Rus. gusli, Ukr. husl', Cz. housle, Slvk. husle) – Chuv. kĕsle 1. "the Chuvash multi-string plucked instrument", 2. "fetters for the sheep". The Chuvash word is considered borrowed from Russian (FEDOTOV M.P. 1996: 284; YEGOROV V.G. 1964: 109). This statement is questionable due to the presence of a second meaning of the word, although the origin of Slavic words is problematic. The origins of Chuvash music go much deeper than Slavic ones (see Traces of Cultural Relations of Peoples of Eastern Europe in Music.)

PSl. *jačmy “barley” (укр. yachmin’, Rus. jachmen’, Cz. ječmen, Pol. jęmień etc) – exact Indo-European correspondences are absent (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 565). The closest match is Chuv. yasmăx, Kaz. yasmyk, Tur. yasmık "lentils". Transferring the names of plants is a common occurrence, especially those having common qualities.

Psl. *jucha “fish-soup” (Ukr juxa, Serb juha, Rus uxa etc), Ukr jushka "blood", "liquid part of borscht" – Chuv. yashka “general name for first liquid courses.” No other interpretation has been found in etymological dictionaries.

Pol, Rus kaganiec, Ukr kahanec’, Slvk., Cz. kahan “a primitive oil-lamp with the handle” – M. Vasmer considered this word as “dark” but compared it with Chuv. kăкan "handle" (VASMER M. 1967: 155)

Укр. Dial. kapar “impoverished”, “nonentity”, Rus. kapara "sick person" – Chuv. kapar “greedy for food”, “insatiable”. The origin of the Chuvash word is not considered in dictionaries.

Rus, Ukr karman “pocket” – Chuv. kărman "basket". The origin of Slavic words from Turkic is disputed, but no convincing etymology has been found (VASMER. M. 1967: 201; MELNYCHUK O.S. 1085: 304).

Ukr khaboz, khabuz “elder (Sambucus)”, “sow-thistle (Cirsium)”, khabaź “weed” – Chuv khăvăsh “honeysuckle (Lonicera)”, Tat. khuysh, Bashk. khyuysh "a hut made out of branches". Melnichuk deduced from the Psl. xabъ "плохой" (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 146).

Ukr chay “let, may” – Chuv chǎy “to dare”. Melnichuk considered the word to be derived from khayaty “to leave”, “to leave” (Ibid: 148). Quite the opposite.

PSl xъmeljь “hop, Humulus lupulus” (Rus khmel’, Bolg khmel, Ukr. xmil’, Pol chmiel, Czech, Slvk chmel etc) – The words of this root are present in many Indo-European and Finno-Ugric languages. Scholars deem that the ways of their spreading are very complicated but they agree about their common source. Some linguists see it in Bulgar language (cf. Chuv xămla having matches in other Turkic: OT qumlaq, Tat. kolmak, Bashk. komalak, Kaz. kulmak a.o.), while others doubt the possibility of infiltration the Bulgarish word so far in Europe: Lat humulus, Old Eng hymele, Ic. humli a.o. (YEGOROV V.G. 1064: 292; VASMER M. 1987: 249-250; FEDOTOV M.P. 1996: 326; MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 188-189).

Rus, Ukr khomut, Czech chomout, Slvk chomút, Pol chomąt “collar for horse” – Chuv xămăt, Tat. kamət, Kaz., Bashk., Turkm. kamyt, Yak. khomuut “collar for horse”. Existing etymologies are unsatisfactory (VASMER M. 1987: 260), and a generally accepted etymology is absent (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 198). However, the Bulgarian origin of the word can be considered justified, since similar words and their derivatives are widespread in Turkic languages. Nevertheless, the nasal vowel ą in Polish word has to be explained.

Sl khyža “hut” (Ukr khyža, Rus khižina, Czech chýše, Slvk chyža etc) – Chuv xüše „hut, hovel”. The words of this root are present in Germanic languages (Germanic hūsa, Germ Haus, Eng house etc). This word is noted as “Herkunft unklar” (obscure origin) in Kluge’s dictionary (Kluge Friedrich, Seebold Elmar. 1989, 297). Vasmer considered the hypothesis about the Germanic origin of the word to be erroneous (VASMER M.1987: 236). The Chuvash word goes back to ctvb qoš “any paired object”, “land that can be plowed in a day with an ox”, “society”, “a circle of slaves or servants” (SEVORTIAN E.V. 1989: 89-93).

Псл. *kъniga “a book” (Rus, Pol kniga, Ukr knyha, Cz kniha etc)– M. Vasmer and other linguists agree with the Turkic origin of the word under the ancient Chuv. *końiv ← *konig (VASMER. M. 1967: 201), however, A. Brückner defends the Slavic origin of the word from kna (kien), which looks far-fetched (BRÜCKNER ALEKSANDER. 1996: 278). According to another hypothesis, the similarity of a book to the folds of a part of the stomach of ruminant animals, which has the name knyzhka, gave rise to its transfer to printed materials (MELNYCHUK O.S. 1985: 473). It should be the other way around.

PSl. *kobyla “mare” (Ukr., Rus., Cz., Slvk. kobyla etc.), Lat. caballus “horse”, Pers. kaval “fast horse", Gr. ιπποσ, Fin. hepo, Est. hobu “horse” a.o.. – according to one version, all these words are considered “stray” (Ibid: 476), however, they have the origin from Turk jaby “horse”, the origin of which experts consider unclear (LEVITSKAYA L.S. (Ed) 1989: 49). The source of borrowing into Slavic languages is also not clear.

Ukr kolymaha, Rus kolymaga, Old Pol kolimaga, Old Czech kolimah, etc “cart of various types” – Many scholars think this is a loan-word from Mong xalimag “Kalmuck, literally, high cart”. But the way of borrowing is obscure. Most likely the word has Old Bulg origin (Chuv kül “to harnish a horse”, jupaxjubax “horse”). In this case, the Mongolian word is borrowed from Turkic (jabaq, jaby “horse” are widespread Turkic words). Ukr kulbaka “saddle” has the same origin.

PSl. korьcь , Rus. korets, Ukr. korets', Pol. korzec a.o. “a dipper, scoop” – Chuv. kurka “a scoop”.

Ukr, Rus korčma, Pol karczma, Czech, Slvk krčma etc “inn, tavern” – M. Vasmer supposed this word to be “dark” but it has Old Bulgarian origin (Chuv kărčama “home-made beer”). A. Brückner points out that in Church Slavonic the word meant not only a drinking establishment but also the intoxicating drink itself (BRÜCKNER ALEKSANDER. 1996: 220)

Rus kostra, Ukr. kostrytsia, Pol. kostra a.o. Sl. “flaxen or hempen chaff, sheave, boon” – Chuv. koštra “chaff”. obviously borrowed earlier from Thracian (Alb. kashtё “chaff, straw”).

Rus kover, Cz., Slvk. koberec, Pol kobierzec “carpet”, Eng cover – Max Vasmer supposed Slavic words have Old Bulg origin (Chuv *kavêr *kebir), meanig some Turkic words kiviz, kigiz “felt blanket” (VASMER M. 1967: 270). Here also OT küvüz "wool bedding". Obviously the original form küvürz.

Rus, Ukr kovyl, Ukr kovyla, Bolg kovil “feather-grass” – Karl Menges gives three possible variants of supposed Turkic origin for kovyl (MENGES K.G. 1979: 105-106). All three variants are far phonetically and semantically (compare 1. Old. Uigur. qomy “to be in movement”, 2. Alt. gomyrğaj “a plant with an empty stalk”, 3. Tur. qavla “to shed bark, leaves”). Old Bulgarian language as a source of loan can suit better because Chuv. xămăl “a stalk, eddish” is more similar to the word kovyl according to the form and the sense. The word of this root survives for the present in Tat qamlı too.

Rus krica “iron block covered by slag, bloom”, Ukr krytsia “steel” – Chuv xurǎç, xurçǎ (Tat. korıç, Kaz quryš etc) „steel” (earlier „sharp”), otvb kurč, "hard", "strong", "brittle", "steel".

Rus. kudr'avyi, Serb., Ukr. kudra, Cz. kudrna "curly" etc., Ukr. kucher'avyi "curly" – Vasmer considered this word to be related to the word kudel "tow", which connected with kudlo (VASMER M. 1967: 399). Melnychuk agreed with him (MELNYCHUK O.S. 1989: 123). but this is a completely different nest of words. However, we should be talking about borrowing from Old Bulgarish – Chuv. kătra "curly" was borrowed in two froms kutŭra (gave kudr'a) and kutĭra (gave kuchera). The name Ekaterina has the same origin.

Rus kuga, Ukr kuha, kuka “reed-mace (Typha)” – Chuv kuka, Kaz. qoğa “reed-mace (Typha)”.

Ukr kulbaka – see kolymaha.

Ukr kyiak, kyiax, kiyax “reed-mace (Typha)” – Chuv xăjax “sedge (Carex)”, Kirg., Kaz., Tat., Bashk. kyiak “sedge (Carex)”. Read-mace and sedge are similar water (swamp) plants. Judging by the phonetics of the Ukrainian word, it may not have been borrowed from ancient Bulgarian.

Sl kyta “bottle of hay, bunch” (Ukr kyta, Rus, Slvk, Pol kita a.o.) – Fasmer connected these words with the word kist' "brush" (VASMER M. 1967:240). Perhaps, it is so, but the root is borrowed from Old Bulgarish? cf. Chuv kětě “bush”.

Ukr., Rus. lad, Pol. lad, Cz. lad "order", "agreement" – “reliable etymology is absent” (Ibid.: 447), but one can consider Chuv. lat "use", Turkm. alat, Tur. alet "instrument", "device".

Sl lava „bench, shelf” (Rus., Ukr., lava, lavka, Czech lavice, Slvk lavica a.o.) – Chuv lav, ălav “cart”. The Chuvash word refers to otvb ulağ “pack or riding animal”, “cart”, “means”, etc. (SEVORTIAN E.V. 1974: 589). The primitive cart was simply a board on wheels, hence the transfer of meaning. You can take into account also the word ulağa “base of the yurt”, and “wall” (Ibid.: 590)

Сл. *malina “raspberries” (Rus., Ukr., Cz, Pol. malina) – Chuv. palan, Tat. malan “viburnum”, Kum. balam "elder". Transfer of meaning is all the more likely with the common Russiam rhyme kalinamalina “viburnum-raspberry”. The authors of etymological dictionaries of the Chuvash language do not dare to recognize the Turkic origin of Slavic words.

Old Czech maňas “smart dandy, fop, fool” – Chuv m(naç “proud, arrogant”.

Псл. *morzъ “мороз” (рус., укр. мороз, пол. mróz, ч., слвц., болг., серб. mraz) – otvb bu:z "ice". Taking into account the length of the vowel, the stem of Turkic words should be restored in the form buř, that is burz (Chuv. păr, Tat. boz, Tur buz “ice” et

Ukr nekhay “let, may” – Chuv ne “what” + khǎy “to dare”. See khay.

Ukr. obid, Rus. oved, Pol. obiad "dinner" – Chuv. apat “food, forage”. The authors of etymological dictionaries of the Chuvash language claim borrowing from Russian, but MLG ovet "fruitage" speaks in favor of the Turkic origin of the word.

Rus., Cz. pakost', Ukr. pakist', kapost', Pol. pakośċ a.o. "dirty trick", "filth", "meanness" – Chuv. pakăç “bed, foul”. The Chuvash word is considered borrowed from Russian but Abayev noted that “in its semantics, the word was influenced by the Chuv pakh, Yak. pakhai "abomination, disgusting", bagu "manure" (ABAYEV V.I. 1958: 417) for Slavic words do not have a convincing etymology.

Rus, Pol pirog, Ukr pyrih, Czech, Slvk piroh “pie, meat-pie” – There are similar words in Turkic languages (Tur börek, Chuv pürěk a.o.) but M. Vasmer rejected Turkic origin of the word grounded his opinion by the absence such word in South Slavic languages. He was wrong, such words exist in Croatian and Slovenian, although the influence of the Turkish language on the latter was practically absent (STACHOWSKI MAREK. 2021: 2).

Sl *pĭšeno “millet meal” (Rus, Czech pšeno, Ukr pšono), Serb pšena "meliotus", Sl pĭšenica “weat” – Chuv. piçen "sow-thistle". Some species of such plants are edible and seeds of these plants could be used as food up to the spreading of cultural grain crops and its borrowed from Bulgars name could be extended by Slavs on the name of millet or wheat. The meaning of Serbian word can support this idea. Vasmer derived Slavic words from pъxati “to pound”, but we are not talking about flour, but about grains.

Sl *proso “millet” (Ukr, Rus, Pol, Bolg, Czech, Slvk proso) – Both M. Vasmer, and V. Machek, and A. Brückner consider this word as "dark" origin, probably, even "pre-European". Maybe, it has Bulgarian origin? (Chuv. părça "peas").

Ukr pužalno “whip-handle”, Ukr puha, Rus puga, “whip” – "not entirely clear" (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2004: 625), but Chuv puša „whip”. No Turkic matches found (FEDOTOV M.P. 1996: 456)

Rus. pyrey, Ukr. pyriy "couch-grass" – Chuv pări “spelt”. There are similar words in the languages of the Nostratic macrofamily; the word can be “wandering”. It is impossible to establish the origin of the Slavic ones.

Czech sálat "to flare", Slvk. sálat’ "to radiate, flare" – V. Machek supposed the old meaning of these words "to throw”. In this case Chuv. salat "to scatter, throw about" can have a connection with them.

Slvk sanka “low jaw, chin” – Chuv sanka "a frontal bone". Obviously, the word should be associated with Sl. sani, sanka "sleigh", the origin of which is uncertain.

Ukr sha! “be quiet!” – Chuv ša! “stop, that’s enough!”

Ukr, Rus shchuka and other Slav. similar names of fish pike Esox – "etymological connections are unclear" (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2012: 515) Com. Turkic čöke "sterlet" (Acipenser ruthenus).

Ukr shuvar “sweet-rush” (Acorus calamus) – Dobrodomov supposed Old Bulgarish origin of the word (VASMER M. 1987: 383).

Rus sigat’, Blr sihac’ “to jump” – Chuv sik “to jump”, Kirg. sik "jump", "dance", Tur. sekmek "jump". Vasmer doubted the borrowing into Belarusian and assumed a relationship with Old Ind. çĩghrás "swift". Is it closer? (VASMER M. 1971: 618).

PSl *smordъ “stink, smell” (Rus, Czech smrad, Pol smród, Ukr smorid etc) – Chuv çěměrt , Bashk shomort, Tat. Bashk shomyrt, Uzb. Bashk shumurt “bird cherry (tree)”. The origin of the word is not considered in etymological dictionaries, but matches are given in Turkic and Indo-European languages (YEGOROV V.G. 1964: 211; VASMER M. 1971: 691-692; MELNYCHUK O.S. 2006: 317). It is known the flowers of the bird tree have a strong smell. Moreover, Lusatian (Sorbian), Bulgarian, and Old Prussian languages have the word of the stem smrod which has the meaning “bird cherry (tree)”. Melnichuk suggested a relationship with the words meaning "to be sick" in the Germanic languages (OE meortan, Ger Schmerz a.o.)(MELNYCHUK O.S. 2006: 317), the origin of which is considered unclear (KLUGE FRIEDRICH, SEEBLD ELMAR. 1989: 643). Holthausen also attracts the Greek σμερδωνες “terrible” here but Frisk didn’t consider it.

Ukr, Rus sorok “forty” – Cрuv xěrěx “forty” (the others Turkic languages have mainly the form qyrq for the meaning “forty”). The Turkic origin of these East Slavic words is accepted by many linguists.

Rus, Pol tabor, Czech, Slvk tábor, Ukr. tabir “camp” etc – Tur., Cr.-Tat. tabur "fortification of carts" but Slavic words can be borrowed from Hungarian (Hung tábor “camp” which has its origin in Chuv tapăr “watering place”) but Chuvashian word can be borrowed in some Slavic languages directly as there is the word tabyr “herd” in Russian (VASMER M. 1987: 6-7).

Rus. temya, Ukr.. yim`ya'я, Bolg. teme a.o. "crown, vertex" – these words are unreasonably close to Old Sl tęti "to chop, сге" (VASMER M. 1987: 41; MELNYCHUK O.S. 2006: 579), but they are of Turkic origin –ctvb depe "top", "hill", "head" (Tat. tübǝ "crown, vertex", Chuv. tüpe), Kbalk. töppe "top" a.o.)

Rus tolmač, Czech tlumač, Pol tłumacz a.o. Slavic words meaning “dragoman, translator” – Generally accepted opinion this is a common Slavic ancient loan word from Turkic languages (Chuv. tălmach, Cum. tylmač, Tur. dilmaç, Yak. tylbas "translator"). The word comes from ctvb tyl “language” (YEGOROV v.G. 1964: 236).

Rus. tovarishch, Ukr. tovarysh – Chuv. tavrash "kin, clan". Ancient Turkic etymology was proposed by Räsänen (VASMER M. 1987: 68). Some similar Turkic words (Uzb. давра a.o.) may be borrowed from Ar.دور "circle", but most are originally Turkic (OT. tegirä "around, all around", Turkm. töverek, Kirg. tegerek "circle" a.o.). Chuvash linguists attribute the word tavrash to Turkic (YEGOROV V.G. 1964, 227-228; FEDOTOV M.P. 1996, Т.II, 163)

Rus tvarog, tvorog, Czech, Slvk tvaroh, Pol twaróg a.o. Slavic words meaning “curds, cottage cheese” – Chuv turǎx “fermented baked milk” and Kurd turaq "the same". There are different assumptions about the origin of Slavic words, including Turkic (VASMER M. 1987: 31-32). .

Ukr tyrsa “feather-grass” – Chuv tyrsa “feather-grass”. Melnichuk assumed that the word was borrowed from the Lithuanian language (MELNYCHUK O.S. 2006: 573), and Vasmer considered it “obscure” (VASMER M. 1987: 132).

Psl. ǫpyrъ/ǫpirъ, Ukr. upyr, Rus. upyr' a.o. Sl. "vampire" – Chuv. Vupăr “unclean spirit, force”, Tat. ubyr "vampire". There are different assumptions about the origin of the word, including from Tat. ubyr (Ibid: 165).

Rus vataga, Ukr vataha “crowd, throng” – M. Vasmer supposed the Chuvash origin of these words (VASMER. M. 1964: 278) – Old Chuv *vătağ “family, room”, OT otağ "tent", "dwelling", Turkm. otağ "room" a.o. и др. ascending oyvb otağ "hut", "dwelling", "hearth", "camp".

Rus. verenitsa – Chuv. *vĕren “rope” Contrary to Vasmer, the Chuvash word is associated with otvb urğan "rope", "lasso" (YEGOROV v.G. 1964: 523; FEDOTOV M.P. 1996: 117).

Ukr vyrij, irij “mythical south country where birds fly away in the autumn, warm lands” – The origin of this word has such explication. There are words ir "morning" and uj "a field, steppe" in Chuvashian. M Vasmer supposed the initial form of the Ukrainian word as *vyroj. Hence, Old Bulg. *iroj could mean "morning (east or, south) steppe". When Slavs still occupied a wood zone they could see how birds fly in the autumn somewhere to the south, in the steppe, and said then, that they fly in "irij".

PSl. vьrĕti, Ukr. vrity, CZ. vřiti, wrzeć “to boil” – Chuv. вĕре “to boil”. Slavic words have equivalents in Baltic but the origin of the Chuvash word is uncertain.

Sl *zerz “iron, rust”. Most parts of scholars restore Slavic word for the rust as *rǔdja according to Pol rdza, Bolg rǔžda, Rus rža, Ukr irža, Czech rez, and Slav *ruda “ore”. But there is the word zerz “rust” in Lusatian (Sorbian) languages which cannot be derived from *rǔdja. The root of this word has a Turkic origin. Turkics use words jez, zez, čes (Chuv. jěs) for the name of copper or brass which derived from ancient forms jerz/zerz. Indo-Europeans borrowed this word from Turkic at the time when the "know-how" of iron technology was unknown and used it for the name of copper and bronze. Later this word was transferred to the name of iron in some Indo-European languages (in detail The Names of Metals in the Turkic, Indo-European, and Finno-Ugric Languages). Just the primary Turkic form for the name of copper is kept in Lusatian word zerz “rust”. This form was transformed in Slavic *zelz-o with the meaning “iron” (Ukr zalizo, Rus železo, Bulg, Pol żelazo, etc). On the other hand, the ancient Turkic word zerz in lightly altered form has been kept in Ukr. žers-t’ “tin-plate” (similar Russian word žes-t’ has lost r).

Sl želězo “iron” (Rus. zheelezo, Ukr. zalizo, Pol. żelazo etc) – See zerz.

The above list is the only raw material for a deeper analysis of phonetic and semantic correspondences between Slavic and Turkic, especially Bulgarian, words by specialists. However, my materials did not interest the Türkologists, although they are aware of the special connections between the Bulgar and Slavic languages ​​and they are studied based on traditional ideas about the historical development of the Türkic languages. One of the works considering this topic is the article by Anna "Bulgars and Slavs: Phonetic features in early borrowings" (DYBO ANNA. 2010). Seeing the Hungarian language as an intermediary in Slavic borrowings from Turkic, she cannot give explanations of the Bulgar-Slavic correspondences, which have no analogs in Hungarian. On the other hand, being an adherent of the Altai ancestral home of the Turks, she gives far-fetched explanations for the phonetic phenomena accompanying borrowings and the ways of their penetration into the Slavic languages. There is no need to doubt the Türkic origin of the Slavic words cited by Anna Dybo, but many Türkic-Slavic matches require a different explanation. When the Türkologists agree with the long-term presence of the Bulgars on the territory of Western Ukraine, they will be able to consider the Bulgar roots in the Slavic languages more skillfully.


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