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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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IB. Emotional-Evaluative Class

1. Evaluation of the positive and negative aspects of social and personal life

a)Truth – untruth

Lie – 230 False – deceit – 112
Tuth – 168 Truth-falsehood – 406
Slander– 46 True-false-lie – 52
Wrong – 12 Untruth, lie– 239
Incorrect – 14 Slander – 50
Gossip, gup – 74 Rumor – bad glory – 204
545 (2,59%) 1063 (3,66%)

Judging by the number of folklore units, the question of truth or untruth was much more weighty in the minds of Russians (3.66 > 2.59). The reasons for this may be different. On the one hand, Russians may be more sensitive to injustice than Ukrainians, and, on the other hand, this topic could be more relevant for them, i.e. in everyday life, they could encounter lies and deceit more often than Ukrainians. The attitude towards lies expressed in folklore is also important, because it does not always condemn lies. We will give the reader the opportunity to come to a conclusion on the basis of the results of the study presented below. The difference in the subject of "Gossip" stands out sharply. Obviously, rumors and gossip occupy more space in the life of Russians than in the lives of Ukrainians.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

Whoever hurts people hurts his children Moscow people sow the land with rye and live with a lie
You need a big scarf to tie people's mouths Holy Russian land is great
but there is no place for truth anywhere
There was once a truth, an old one and went away People live in untruth,
and we don't live others
He who knows how to lie, knows how to steal Ukrainian will not lie,
and will not tell the truth
Mr. cantor does not eat geese, because they are stolen All people are lies, and so are we
There is as much truth as in a sieve of water Don't cry for the truth, live with the wrong
A Muscovite said "right", but lied well Good holy truth,
but it is not good for people
Lies are on the table, and the truth is under the threshold
He tell the truth if he makes a mistake.
It is easier for those who lie

b)Well – Badly

Good – 61 Well – Badly – 148
Bad – 157 Good – Mercy – Evil – 275
Unkind – 82
Unwell – 52
Evil companies – 51
373 (1, 77%) 423 (1,46%)

A slight advantage of Ukrainian themes over Russian in this section (1.77>1.46) can be explained by the less optimism of Ukrainians in relation to the realities of life, a skeptical assessment of future prospects, which is confirmed by the very tone of the folklore units themselves. Russian sayings and proverbs mainly demonstrate a sober assessment of the harsh truth of life.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

Such is the nature of the dog Do not be offended by an angry word, but do not rely on a kind word
Mom gave birth that even the pit does not accept Radish horseradish is not sweeter
Although ugly, but own The heart can not break even a straw
Take oats to Paris too,
and there won't be rice from oats.
The good if not for licking, the bad if not for hewing

c) Trouble – Grief

Misfortune – 120 Joy – Grief – 99
Adversity – 41 Grief – Misfortune – 242
Grief – 22 Grief – Consolation – 179
Adversity – 17 Grief – Кesentment– 174
Sorrow – 52
Сalamity – 21
Need – 88
Lachrymation – 56
417 (1,98%) 423 694 (2,39%)

The everyday problems of all people are the same, but their attitude toward them is different. All kinds of misfortunes are more painfully perceived by Russians (2,39% > 1,98%).

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

He who jokes with disaster,
the same one tastes it
All the bumps are falling on poor Makar
Why grieve,
let those who are getting married grieve
Woe in rags,
trouble naked
Trouble teaches you to eat bread Someone else's trouble does not give the mind
When trouble is sleeping,
don't wake it up
Do not be discouraged in times of trouble, trust in God
And in Vienna, people are poor Trouble does not live alone
One disaster will not bother Trouble has come – open the gate

d) Abundance – Poverty

Rich man – 201 Wealth – Poverty – 148
Poor – 12 Wealth – Prosperity – 107
Beggar – 101 Prosperity – Squalor – 710
Squalor – 21
Hunger – 56
Profit– 50
551 (2,61%) 965 (3,3%)

According to the previous topics, problems of well-being and poverty concern Russians (3.30%) more than Ukrainians (2.61%)

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

You can't buy your only own father with money Becauce work you will not be rich,
but you will be a hunchback
Silver-gold drags the man into the swamp Well-fed and rich, I don’t want to work,
the children will be, they will get
Wealth blows, and misery bends Good is given – and to earn, and to spend
He is naked, and his shirt is under his bosom There is no bread, so drink wine!

In general, it can be said that the evaluation of positive and negative moments in the life of Russians is clearly more important than in Ukrainians (10.84% versus 8.95%)

2. Human Relationships

Human relationships are largely determined by the emotional evaluation of the immediate environment, preferences, tastes, and so on. therefore this topic is included in this class.

a) Own – Another's

Own – 71 Own – Another's – 542
Our – 61
Other people's troubles – 57
Mine – 49
Someone else's misfortune – 20
About me – 85
343 (1,63%) 642 (2,21%)

The widespread opinion about Ukrainian individualism does not find convincing confirmation in this section. For Russians, the distinction between “us and others” is more important than for Ukrainians (2.21 > 1.63), although the difference is not very significant. For the "visiting card" of Ukrainians, which is the saying "My hut is at the side, I know nothing", you can find examples of completely different content. In addition, it is assimilated and used by Russians very widely and deliberately, maybe even more than all other Ukrainian proverbs. And its prevalence among Ukrainians can be explained by their under-yoke position in a foreign state. Not wanting to conflict or cooperate with government officials, the Ukrainian had to pose as an indifferent neutral. This opinion is confirmed by the Russian proverb "The Khokhol will not lie, and he will not tell the truth." On the other hand, it was in the interests of the ruling Russian elite to form an antipathetic image of Ukrainians in society. The events of the "orange revolution" destroyed the stereotyped idea of a Ukrainian who is indifferent to everything that does not concern him personally. Not only amazing political activity confirms the falsity of this template, but also disinterested mass assistance to the protesters, as Elena Krushinskaya wrote about in the article "Orange Revolution: Failure of the Template." And, returning to the topic of the section, with its qualitative assessment, it can be argued that Ukrainians show more respect for other people's property than Russians. Many of the following examples, which characterize this trait of Ukrainians, have no Russian analogs found. Russians seem to be more self-centered than Ukrainians.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

Do not poke your nose into someone else's millet My hand only pulls towards me
You can't put a gate in someone else's mouth Eat other people's pies, and take care of your own ahead
Good things are not built from someone else's good My shirt is closer to my body
You take someone else's by the handful, and the devil by the measure from yoy Someone else's wine and would drink and eat, would ask to swim
Mine own is holy, another's is the holiest Who about what, and we about ours
Give up the fat, if only it was my way Hit yourself, don't let others hit you
I don't care whether it's a tile or a stove What hurts you, the other does not itch
Let yours be on top My hand is the master
As one wants, one jumps After me though the grass does not grow

Among other things, the desire for the property of one's neighbor is clearly visible in Russian proverbs.

b) Assistance

There is no brother in misfortune – 69 (0,33%) Help – by the way – 1,62%)

The topic of assistance in Ukrainian folklore is incomparably small compared to that in Russian folklore. Nomis does not even have a corresponding section in the collection. The closest section in terms of subject, the title of which speaks for itself: "There is no brother in misfortune". Obviously, Ukrainian individualism manifests itself precisely in the fact that Ukrainians are used to relying more on their own strength and do not without reason rely on someone's help. The same is said mainly by the skeptical intonation of sayings and proverbs. The remote tracing of the Ukrainian proverb "Whoever gave in trouble, gave twice" can be found in the Latin expression deserves attention "Bis dat, qui cito dat" (Twice gives the one who gives quickly, that is, immediately).

The propensity of Russians to hope for help would look rather strange given the skeptical attitude towards it, which some Russian examples also demonstrate, but basically, Dahl's collection is not about the help itself, but about its timeliness or appropriateness.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

Then the in-law also loves if someone is rich, but when that is poor, he will forget his own brother The goat obeyed the ram, and he himself got into trouble
Whoever gave in trouble, gave twice The sleds are like ourselves
If he drowns, he gives the ax, and if he is saved, then the knife is spared Even a mosquito will knock down a horse when a wolf is assisting
Kiss me today, and I'll kiss you tomorrow, and if I forget, then so be it A healthy person does not need a doctor
When it's a disaster, then "go aunt Petrikha", but when they drink and eat, they don't look at Petrikha A diamond is cut by a diamond, and a thief is lost by a thief
You can't help trouble with trouble They will not so much shake the pears as break twigs
Someone else's pain does not hurt anyone A good deed is never too late
No one will give a gift to the poor I would drag out the song, but there are no stooge

c) Friend – Enemy

Fraternity – 18 Friend – Foe – 215
Chum – 40
Enemy – 36
Godfather – 10
104 (0, 49%) 215 (0,74%)

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

You will not have an enemy until you feed him with your bread Do not make the enemy a sheep, make a wolf
Not so much a hundred brothers as a hundred friends For a sweet friend and an earring of an ear
Climbed into wealth, forgot the brotherhood No friend, so look, found – so take care
Don't have a hundred stacks in the field, but have enough friends An untested friend is like an unbroken nut
The friend's water is sweeter than the enemy's honey Tablecloth from the table – and friendship floated away
In a bad hour, you will know a faithful person An old friend is better than two new ones

The theme of the enemy in the proverbs of the Slavs is poorly represented, more is said about friendship. The predominance of this theme in Russian folklore suggests that Russians value friendship more than Ukrainians. This is consistent with the conclusion about the understanding of Ukrainian individualism – Ukrainians rely more on their own strength than Russians. It should be said that this topic is very connected with the attitude towards one's neighbor in general. Therefore, the topics of friendship, neighborhood, and assistance should be considered together.

d) Neighbor – Originality – Other nations

Neighbor – 16 Neighbor – Frontier – 215
Muscovite – 102 Unusual – 93
Pole – 77
Jew– 136
Gypsy – 89
Others -30
450 (2,14%) 121 (0,42%)

The difference in this topic between Ukrainians and Russians is very noticeable (2.14 >> 0.42). Ukrainians pay great attention to relations with neighbors, especially those of other nationalities. The difference in the geographical position of the settlement territories of Ukrainians and Russians resulted in the fact that the former more often had neighbors of a different nationality, customs, and faith, and the latter. In accordance with these, Ukrainians, by necessity, have developed such traits as tolerance for any originality much stronger than Russians, in whom alienation to the other takes the form of xenophobia, of which they are often accused. Obviously, for Ukrainians, friendship is often associated with a good neighborhood. In Ukrainian folklore, the theme of the neighborhood is more pronounced, although the general share of this theme includes attitudes towards neighbors of a different nationality.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

If there is trouble, then to the Jew, and when the trouble passes, then the devil will take the Jew Pop has his and damn has his
Let's blame the Poles, but let's be with the Poles Every bird has its own habits
Moskal is not our brother – he does not pardon What is a country is also a novelty
He served Moscow, Ivan, and it despised him Every Moses has his own idea
There are gentlemen at Poles, guys in Moscow, and brothers are at us It is rotten for you but nice for us
Be friends with Moskal,
and keep the stone in your bosom
It is rotten for you but nice for us
What is good for someone, a peasant has a flail, and the Pole has a saber With whom you will lead, from that you will type
It is not the Poles who are fighting, but our sins Be friends with your neighbor, but hold on to your sword
Run, Pole, because everything on you is ours Alien soul – darkness
There is no one stronger in faith than a Jew Don't believe everyone, lock the door tight
If the Jew did not make bread, then the Gypsy will not It is no need far, and it's good here

e) Motherland – Foreign land

Motherland – 15 Motherland – Foreign land – 125
Ukraine (mainly land surveying) – 170 Rus', Motherland – 456
185 (0,88%) 581 (2,00%)

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

It is better to lay bones on the motherland than to stretch the glory abroad It's warmer over the sea, but it's lighter here (more fun)
Under Khmelnytskyi Yuras, Ukraine became empty, lapsed In a foreign land, as if in a coffin
Since Bohdan to Ivan (Mazepa), there was no hetman Millstones say: it's better in Kyiv, but the mortar says: what's here, what's there
Trouble in Ukraine: it's hot from there and it hurts from here Motherland is mother, know how not to stand up for
It's good to live in Ukraine: drink honey and wine The Holy Russian land stands by the Russian God and the Russian Tsar
You drove across the Danube, and don't even think about going home Own land even in a handful is sweet
Take me to Vienna too, you won't make a Pole out of me Where the pine has grown, there it is beautiful

Russians feel the difference between homeland and foreign land more strongly than Ukrainians (2.00% of folklore on this topic). The weakly expressed feeling of patriotism in the folklore of Ukrainians (0.88%) partly explains the fact that they quite easily denationalize in a foreign environment. However, the feeling of patriotism is not innate, it is formed in society.

f) Company – Loneliness

Company – 171 People – Community – 82
Loneliness – 49
171 (0,81%) 131 (0,45%)

Ukrainians are more distinguished by collectivism and understanding of the power of unity (0.81%), Russians less so – 0.45%.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

         Ukrainian                                     Russian

Even death is not scary in a band The community is a big head
The leader determines the strength of the team Take it together, it won't be heavy
Whatever the community says, the master will not help The people are stupid, everything climbs into the heap
As for the grandmother, so for the community The voice of the people of Christ betrayed
Don't let my penny also be wasted either Alone in the field is not a warrior
A friendly herd is not afraid of a wolf You can't find someone to blame in the community
As they live in a heap, there is no pain in the navel A king and a beggar without companions

Summarizing, it can be said that the sphere of human relations worries Russians more than Ukrainians (7.44% against 6.28%), and in general, the data for class IB indicate that emotional evaluation in life has less weight in Ukrainians (15, 23 % of folklore), plague among Russians (18.28%).