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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Rational Component

IIA. Rational-Reflective Class

a) Few – Many

Many – 32 Few – Many – 336
Major – 75
A little– 38
145 (0,69%) 336 (1,16%)

Russians are more inclined to estimate quantity (1,16% – 0,69%)

b) Far – Near

Far – 27 Space – 33
Far – Near– 32
27 (0,13%) 65 (0,22%)

The results of the calculations are too small to draw any conclusions.

c)Identical – unequal

Not the same – 101 Different – the same 213
Equal – 325
A thing for two – 53
479 (2,28%) 213 (0,73%)

The tendency to compare is much more pronounced among Ukrainians (2,28% >> 0,73%).

d) Past – Future

Those years – 51 Past – Future – 341
Past – Future – 30
Ancient -13
Transferred – 37
Now – 11
142 (0,68%) 341 (1,17%)

One might think that interest in the past and future is correlated with emotionality..

e) Count – calculation – money

Counting – 192 Counting – 57
Money – gold – silver – 105 Money – gold – 96
296 (1,40%) 153 (0,53%)

Here money, gold, and silver are taken from the collection of Nomes as a measure of value in calculations. Since Dahl does not give the “Money-Gold” section, the calculation was carried out in other sections, but perhaps not all proverbs and sayings were identified. However, the account is not only about money, no conclusions can be drawn

f) Language

Language – 328 Language – 409
People – Language – 93
Proverb – Saying – 36
328 (1,56%) 538 (1,85%)

In general, the difference is small, but in Nomys it is not so much about the language as it is, examples of typical invitations, farewells, mocking assessments of words from other languages, etc. are given. There is practically nothing about the native language, therefore it is not surprising that Ukrainians do not hold it in due esteem.

g) Name

Name – 67 (0,23%)

Nomys does not give a special section with such a subject.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore for the whole class IIA

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

A big tree grows slowly Great things come from small things
In a big ship, and at the very bottom From the world on a thread – a naked has a shirt
Who is elder is not smaller Small Small spool but precious but precious
Some devils are afraid of the cross, and others are afraid of the whip Across the sea, a heifer costs a half but transporting costs up to a ruble
A fisherman sees a fisherman from afar You can see up close but it's insulting to the feet
The net from the fish trap laughs bге it is the same He stole an ax, but he says that he is not a thief
The same thank what for fish, what for crayfish Horseradish is not sweeter than radish
There were only a handful of people in old Khmel's time After the rain on Thursday
Where are those times when the sausages themselves flew to the mouth Who remembers the old will be without an eye
Three sacks of buckwheat wool and all three are incomplete Although rare, but aptly
They brag about a woman not at seven days, but at seven yearsліт To know where to fall, so to spread the straw.
Are there gentlemen who do not like money? Half a penny without an altyn, without forty-seven kopecksк
Better virginity in the mire than without virginity in gold God loves trinity
Two Yuris gathered, and both are stupid The proverb is not in vain

Rational-reflex component in folklore is more typical for Ukrainians than for Russians (6.25% and 5.56%, respectively). Their slight preponderance was mainly due to the sections "Identical – unequal" and "Counting – accounting – money". Obviously, Ukrainians tend to have a greater sense of comparison.

IIB Rational-Evaluative Class

This class includes topics that reflect general thoughts, reasoning, and attitudes towards being in general and towards labor activity in particular.

a) Logical thinking, science

Reason – 108 Reason – Cause – 17
Guilty– 67 Reason – Consequence – 65
Strength is in what – 82 Reason – Alibi – 78
Science – 148 Start-end – 188
I forgot – 15 Essence – Exterior -366
Literacy – 106
Learning – Science -313
Memory – Commemoration -36
420 (1,99%) 1169 (4,03%)

Logical thinking and the importance of science to a human being are more reflected in the Russian national character than in the Ukrainians (4,03% > 1,99%>.

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

Like seeds, like roots Where there is smoke, there is fire
Whoever does not listen to dad will listen to the headsman What to blame on the mirror, if the face is crooked
the know-it-all runs, and the know-nothing lies Who has many reasons, he lies a lot
He who works, grieves. If there was a head, there would be a mace
A philosopher, but he does not know how to harness a mare to a yoke They beat the wolf not for being gray, but for eating the mare
You know the taste of pumpkin! Small start but expensive
An unloved godmother's pies are not tasty either A good start to the half was exhausting
He who knows much has little The beginning is difficult, but the end is wise
Do not learn the mind until old age, but until death They meet by dress, see off by mind
And he sometimes drives by the wise devils It is not the place that beautifies the man, but the man the place
Power without a head goes wild, and reason without power slows down Who wants to know a lot, that's why you need to sleep a littleь
I have already forgotten more than you know Learning is light, and unlearning is darkness.
You say what you say, but I heard from people Russian for reading, Ukrainian for singing

With a certain inclination to compare, Ukrainians are rather skeptical about science, they obviously believe that they are already smart enough. Some examples show simply a dismissive attitude towards science and knowledge. In Russian folklore, there are no analogs to the Ukrainian Whoever knows well, that little can. The unwillingness of Ukrainians to study was also noted by Mykola Kostomarov, when he taught at Kyiv University in 1846: "Little Russian youth, natives of the left side of the Dnieper, with the exception of a few gifted with special outstanding talents, were distinguished by some kind of stupidity, laziness, and apathy for mental work" [KOSTOMAROV N.I. 1890: 66-67] Obviously, such an attitude to science characterizes, on the one hand, the self-confidence of Ukrainians, and on the other hand, it is due to the absence of a strict need to seek in science the means of satisfying material needs, because the mental abilities of the Ukrainian are not deprived.

b) Practical mind, experience

Mind – 66 Mind – Stupidity – 593
Fool – 500 Sense – Stupid – 889
Humbug – 440 Oversight – Quickness – 409
Stupid – 17 Caring – Experience – 170
It is not known – 97
Skilled student – 80
Experienced – 38
Сhores – 67
Gawk – 82
1383 (6,99%) 2061 (7,10%)

It is difficult to separate practical mind and experience from acquired theoretical knowledge. Obviously these two subclasses should be considered together. Then, in total, the Russians still outnumber the Ukrainians(11,23% > 8, 98%).

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

He who cries in the evening will laugh in the morning The morning is wiser than the evening. Husband's wife is prompter"
One fool will throw an ax into the water, but ten smart people will not pull it out Do not buy too much, you have to sell what you need
A fool, when he is silent, appears to be intelligent The wise man loves to learn, but the fool loves to teach.
He does not know how to tie a horse's tail To teach a learned is only to spoil
We know without a priest that Sunday is a holiday A man is smart – he is free to drink, a man is stupid – he will drink away and a sheepskin coat
Tell your bald father!

c) Energy, mobility

Vagabond – Rebel – 22 Rest – Movement – 32
Restless – 65 Silence – Noise – Scream – 68
Quiet – 53 Way – Road – 107/td>
Sleep – 126 Sleep – 74
Rambling– 41
Way – 168
475 (2,26%) 281 (0,97%)

The clear difference between Ukrainians and Russians (2.26 > 0.97), contrary to Dontsov's statement about the passivity of Ukrainians, indicates that they are significantly more energetic than Russians. Apparently, Dontsov did not know the Russians in rural Russia. The sections "Calmness," "Sleep" presented here do not contradict the general theme:

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

You can't buy a horse from sleep, and you can't make clothes from lying down Dust in a column, smoke in a yoke – either from a fight or from a dance
Grabs like a priest's daughter to marry Under a lying stone and water does not flow
He toys because all goes well for him Go on the road – weave five bast shoes
Who is often on the road was under the cart and on the cart Rushing about like a thief at a fair

d) Work, household, craft

Soil – 24 Work – Idleness – 487
Work – 138 Agriculture – 585
Lazy – 212 Craft – Tool – 88
Dawdle – 71 Craft – Artisan – 111
Buying – selling – 234 Trading – 338
Negligence – 24 Loans – 159
Craft – 103 Supervision – Master – 133
Various crafts – 200 Yard – House – Household – 231
Look after – 30 Animal – 247
Exchange – 15
Money – 132
Debt – 61
Proprietor – 64
Supervision – 6
House – 90
My house – 46
Spin – 4
Cattle – 70
Poultry – 12
1536 (7,30%) 2369 (8,17%)

Part of the folklore devoted to labor activity is somewhat more among Russians than among Ukrainians (8,17% > 7,30%). Note that in the complex topic of money, here the proverbs dedicated to them are related to trading activities as a means of payment. The quantitative advantage of the Russians is somewhat lost if we consider the qualitative side of folklore because the work can be treated differently. Some examples of Russian proverbs below obviously have a double meaning but are not always taken as a joke. In Ukrainian folklore, there were no analogs to many Russian examples of a dismissive attitude towards work (at least in the same quantity).

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

A hardworking penny feeds forever Working is not a bear, it won't go into the forest
Whoever works, does not walk naked Lie on your side and look at the Oka River
Only deferred cheese is good People plow, and we wave our hands
Teach the lazy not by thresh, but teach with hunger People reap, and we lie under the boundary
He who loves the oven is the enemy of Sich Laziness was born before us
Negligence is worse than drunkards Even if I don't eat for three days, I don't get off the stove
Where you don't put it, you won't take it there Work loves fun
Where you can't see with your eyes, you'll shake your wallet there From the labors of the righteous you will not make stone chambers
A goat plucks an osier, and a wolf a goat, and a wolf a man, and a man a Jew,
and a Jew an esquire, and an esquire a lawyer, and three hundred devils pluck lawyers
Without effort, you can not catch a fish from the pond
The bark is not removed from the same linden tree twice Lie my tow for at least a whole week
Work without end, like a mare without a tail From work you will not be rich, but you will be a hunchback
To eat fish, you have to get into the water Not work dries, but care
Everything is attempted, but not everything succeeds Drones are a lot of tricksv
Even God loves an owner The owner will pass through the yard – he will find the ruble; goes back – finds two

e) Human

Full-bodied, grown-up – 141 Human – 615
Strong – 145 Woman – Judy – 84
Beautiful – 104
Awesome – 40
Nasty – 97
Shame – 57
No without flaws – 10
594 (2,82%) 699 (2,41%)

Man as a person is interested in both people in approximately equally. Ukrainians attach more importance to the physical properties of a person. In accordance with the titles of the sections, they respect healthy, "corpulent" people. Russian folklore has a more moral, instructive character.

f) Health, youth, old age, illness

Young and old – 196 Youth – Old age – 241
Disease – 144 Health – Ailment – 228
Health – 33
Doctors – 12
Medicine woman – 95
480 (2,28%) 469 (1,61%)

Problems of age, health, and disease are of more concern to Ukrainians than to Russians (2.28% > 1.61%). It is not for nothing that there were many Ukrainians among the outstanding medical scientists of Russia and the Soviet Union.

Examples for the last two sections

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

She was young – she was stupid, she became old – she became stupid What's in your mouth is useful
And so many evils of all kinds, so God also made women abundant And a bad man will live a hundred years
There, you can eat a bagel until you get around her Blood with milk
Teeth like turnips Breast of a swan, gait of a peacock
It is a shame to name, but a sin to hide Not happy without illness and health
Grandfathers build, and women fertilize Gray hair, but no conscience
Cheeks like watermelons Green grapes are not sweet, and a young man is not hard
An orphan has two mouths: with one he eats, with the other he lies Take care of the dress from new, and honor from a young age
A giant does not live long in the world The lynx is motley from above, and the man from the inside
Vasyl, don't take it by force The hair is long and the mind is short
Give birth, grandma, to a child, and grandma is a hundred years old The curve does not matter, but the grief of the crooked soul
If God helps, then the woman will help That's two ears to listen more
A hundred women will come, but it will bring a hundred disasters Healthy for food, but frail for work.

g) Life – Death

Death – 214 Life – Death – 385
To live – 50
264 (1,25%) 385 (1,33%)

The themes of life and death are equally poorly represented in the folklore of both peoples.

h) Kin, family, children

Man and woman – 251 Man – Woman– 356
Kin – 97 Children – Kindred – 297
Children – 184 Family – Kinsfolk – 260
Son – 54 Kin – Tribe – 225
Father – 122 Loneliness – Marriage – 262
Mother – 82 Groom – Bride – 153
Dother – 31 Matchmaking – 92
Брат – 24 Wedding – 146
Uncle -17
1269 (6,03%) 1791 (6,17%)

With almost the same weight that Ukrainians and Russians give to family ties, it is striking that Russians say a lot about the inheritance of the character of their parents by children in the subject of "Kin-Tribe", while in Ukrainian folklore the reflection of family relations prevails, and a lot of attention is paid to children, especially sons, and also to the father, less to the woman as a mother. The central place of the mother in the Ukrainian family, which is associated by many researchers with the grain-growing tradition, is not confirmed once again. The difference between Ukrainians and Russians is also that the latter pay more attention to marriage (twice as much of Russian folklore is devoted to this topic).

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

A woman is like a withe, wherever you want, you can put it there Children steal, father hides, children steal, mother mourns
A woman is like a bag –
what you put down, you carry
That's the treasure, that there is order in the family
The blacksmith forges, and his wife goes to the inn Hold on like your own father!
Small children are not allowed to sleep,
and big ones are not allowed to breathe
From a bad seed do not expect a good descendant
Relatives are not a hindrance to service
A beautiful smeared cake, not a child What is the father for, when he himself is a good man
Keep your daughter at home, and also pay someone to take the trouble out of the house Freedom spoils even a good wife
Respect your father and God – you will be loved everywhere The bride is born, the groom sits on a horse
A mother does not cry for a cowardly son Put a fur coat on – it's warm, put on a wife – it's nicer
• Letting a wife down means not giving out good things
Girls grow like a dog's quinoa, and boys – like a stone The girl is not a wife, the nature is not the same

i) Food

When displaying the relationship to food, Nomys did not specifically highlight the section, but the following sections may be suitable for the topic of Dahl

Poverty – Hunger – 77 Food – 560
Bread – 287
To drink- 31
395 (1,87%) 560 (1,93%)

The universal problem of food and hunger is the same for all peoples, and in the folklore of both peoples, it is presented approximately the same.

и) Time, seasons

Moon, (calendar, signs) – 155 Seasons – 330
Week – 56
Weather – Year – 250
461 (2,19%) 330 (1,14%)

In general, in the rational-evaluative class, the ratio between Russians and Ukrainians is almost the same:

Ukraininans – 34,51%

Russians – 34,87%

IIC. Rational-Reactive Class

In this class, the topics of those proverbs and sayings that reflect the normative prescriptions that are in force in the minds of peoples will be considered. This topic covers state categories, the court, the understanding of justice, the relationship between representatives of different social classes or levels, etc.

Tsar – 27 Tsar – 88
Hetman – 17 Prikaz Court – 42
Court – 132 Court – Covetousness – 105
Council – 48 Judgment – Truth – 79
Repentance – 20 Recognition – Evidence – 32
Fine – 50 Guilt – Merit – 152
Найми – 130 Crime – Sin – 46
Lord – 388 Coffers – 32
Cossack – 118 Law – 23
Peasant – 112 Superiors – Order – obedience – 141
Chief – Service – 61
Ranks – Estates – 444
1042 (4,95%) 1245 (2,29%)

Examples from Ukrainian and Russian folklore

             Ukrainian                                     Russian

God – father, the sovereign – uncle Where is the tsar, here is the truth
Even if you are a bastard, you are a helper to the tsar, but you are a master, but a ram Without a tsar, the earth is a widow
The king will not stop the water One sun shines in the sky, and the Russian Tsar is on the Earth
Service does not waste freedom High to the sky, to from the king
Род службе не помеха
What is council is not treason The tsar does not know what the houndsman is doing
Without a council even the army perishes The Russian people are tsar-loving
Some council is worse than betrayal Obedience more than fasting and prayer
What is free for the master is not free for Ivan The sword does not cut the head of the one who pleaded guilty
Here's a collar and bow for you, I'm not your servant In court – with a foot, in a pocket – with a hand
Hatching a laborer even from his knee, but buy Whom I serve, I take my hand
Do not argue with the rich, do not fight with the strong Even with a bast, but the boss
The master said and went himself Obedience to superiors – obedience to God
The Lord's will is our destiny For the rich to go to court – tryn-grass; the poor – off with his head
Give the horse oats and make him run like a dog Don't argue with a soldier
A dog does not run away from a loaf, but only from a whip Lord's request – a strict order
Mr. will be found for our goods It is closed on the shoulders of two heads
Smear a guy with tallow, and he will stink of manure Don't do your good, do my bad
The coffers knows no pity First in advice, first in reply
Even if you put on a coat, don't shy away from a robe If you don’t go to ringers, you won’t get into sexton
Without a hetman, the army perishes Dog deserves food

The mention in Russian folklore of the tsar as a symbol of supreme power is confirmed by the saying "The Russian people are tsar-loving" and in the content of sayings and proverbs. Other state categories also prevail among them (king, law, service, rank, class, etc.), and in Ukrainian – social (lord, mercenary, peasant, Cossack). Also noteworthy is the presence of the section "Council" in the collection of Nomis, to which Dahl has no correspondence. Considering the natural internal readiness of Russians to submit, one can easily understand why the administrative-command system suits them more than Ukrainians, for whom democratic institutions such as the council are of significant importance.

As a result, the rational component in the national character of Ukrainians occupies 46.28%, and Russians – 44.73%, but in terms of quality, the content of the folklore of both peoples differs more noticeably.